Emeritus Professor Margaret Baird forged a luminary career for her pioneering research investigating the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in cancer and infectious diseases, as an inspirational lecturer at the University of Otago and a role model to many. In this article celebrating the 100-year anniversary of ICB, we discuss Margaret’s career and life journey through the eyes of her family and co-authors, as we explore her many publications in ICB and beyond.
Catchment modelling has undergone tremendous developments during the past decades. In the 1970s, the focus was on simulation of catchment runoff with process descriptions and data inputs being lumped to the catchment scale. Later developments included spatially distributed models allowing data inputs and hydrological processes to be simulated at model grid scale, i.e. much finer than catchment scale. These models were able to explicitly simulate various processes such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration, groundwater and surface runoff. With the advancements in remote sensing technology and availability of high-resolution data, increased attention has in recent years been given to enhancing the capability of catchment models to reproduce spatial patterns and in this way improve our understanding of hydrological processes and the physical realism of catchment models. This development process has involved a wide spectrum of different aspects in the modelling process, reaching from an improved understanding of uncertainties in data, model parameters and model structures to new protocols for good modelling practices in water management. Recognizing the important role of biodiversity and social aspects, hydrologists are now extending the scope of their models to capture the interactions between water, biota and human social systems.
A Pediatric Case of Neuromyelitis Optica and Pulmonary Inflammatory Myofibroblastic TumorAlyson Win, BS (email@example.com)a : Conceptualization; writing- original draft; writing- review and editing.Jesper Jiang, BS (firstname.lastname@example.org)a:Conceptualization; writing- original draft. John Fitzwater, MD (john.fitzwater@BSWHealth.org)b : writing- review and editing; supervision. Edwin Hernandez Caro, MD (Edwin.Caro@BSWHealth.org)c : writing- review and editing. Amy Cruickshank, DO (Amy.Cruickshank@BSWHealth.org)d : writing- review and editing. Duriel Hardy, MD (Duriel.Hardy@austin.utexas.edu)e : writing- review and editing. Ydamis Estrella Perez, MD (Ydamis.Perez@BSWHealth.org)f : writing- review and editing. Michele Prater, PNP (JMichele.Prater@BSWHealth.org)c: writing- review and editing. Malvika Sagar, MD (Malvika.Sagar@BSWHealth.org)c : Conceptualization; writing- review and editing; supervision.a: Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Medicine, Temple, TXb: Department of Pediatric Surgery, Baylor Scott and White McClane Children’s Medical Center, Temple, TXc: Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Baylor Scott and White McClane Children’s Medical Center, Temple, TXd: Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Baylor Scott and White McClane Children’s Medical Center, Temple, TXe: Department of Pediatric Neurology, Dell Children’s Medical Center, Austin, TXf: Department of Pathology, Baylor Scott and White Medical Center, Temple, TX
A historic challenge for shotgun proteomics has been the requirement for high quality, simple and nonredundant curated protein sequences in small .fasta text files. Due to the intrinsic informatic challenges and time required to assemble these files, proteomics has struggled to expand beyond the confines of a few model organisms. When considering post-translational modifications that may or may not be present on a specific peptide sequence, these factors inevitably compound. A study on how mangos continue to ripen on the shelf may not be the first thing you'd think of as proof of a scientific discipline shedding historic limitations. However, Bautiste-Valle et al., may be just that. These authors present a quantitative comparison of both peptide and glycopeptide alterations through the complexity of the fruit ripening process and in this we see the present state of a field that no longer needs to wait on genomics to obtain deep mechanistic insights.
Prior studies found hand preference trajectories predict preschool language outcomes. However, this approach has been limited to examining bimanual manipulation in toddlers. It is not known whether hand preference during infancy for acquiring objects (i.e., reach-to-grasp) similarly predicts childhood language ability. The current study explored this motor-language developmental cascade in 90 children. Hand preference for acquiring objects was assessed monthly from 6 to 14 months and language skill was assessed at 5 years. Latent class growth analysis identified three infant hand preference classes: left, early right, and late right. Infant hand preference classes predicted 5-year language skills. Children in the left and early right classes, who were categorized as having a consistent hand preference, had higher expressive and receptive language scores relative to children in the inconsistent late right class. Consistent classes did not differ from each other on language outcomes. Infant hand preference patterns explained more variance for expressive and receptive language relative to previously reported toddler hand preference patterns, above and beyond socioeconomic status (SES). Results suggest that hand preference, measured at different time points across development using a trajectory approach, is reliably linked to later language.
IntroductionA volvulus occurs when a segment of intestine, usually part of the colon, twists around its mesentery. Following this rotation, initially venous return is disturbed and causes ischemia caused by venous stasis. With the prolongation of obstruction in the mesenteric vessels, along with the distention of the twisted segment of the intestine due to the progressive production of gas by the bacteria inside it, the arterial input is also disturbed, and the mucosal ischemia gradually progresses towards the muscular and serous layers, leading to perforation of the entire thickness of the intestineSigmoid volvulus accounts for 2% to 5% of colonic obstructions in Western countries and 20% to 50% of colonic obstructions in Eastern countries (1). This occurs mostly in patients with lack of mobility and a history of chronic constipation, where the sigmoid colon becomes chronically distended and redundant.Undescended testis (UDT) is defined as one or both testicles absent in scrotal sac when descending processes become disturbed and testis remains inside the peritoneal cavity (2). There are some very known complications of a undescendent intra-abdominal testicle such as cancer, ischemia and infertility(3); But the rotation of the colon around the spermatic cord of one UDT, it is a very rare phenomenon that there is no similar report.In this article, we introduce a 67-year-old man who underwent laparotomy with the diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus, and the intraoperative findings were surprising.
Transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric transfer hydrogenation has been proved to be a powerful approach for the synthesis of chiral alcohols. Herein, A highly efficient and enantioselective transfer hydrogenation of dibenzoheptaheterocyclic ketones catalyzed by an arene-tethered TsDPEN-based Rh(III) catalyst has been successfully developed, and a variety of dibenzoheptaheterocyclic ketones were reduced by a 1/1 mixture of formic acid and DBU (1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene) with high yields and enantioselectivities. With this method, the asymmetric reduction of 7,8-difluorodibenzo[b,e]thiepin-11(6H)-one has been realized, providing the key intermediate of baloxavir marboxil with >99% yield and >99% ee at a substrate/catalyst molar ratio of 1000.
Furans bearing alkynyl substituents are highly useful in organic synthesis. However, the methodologies to access these important furan derivatives are rather limited. We herein report an efficient synthesis of alkynylated furan derivatives based on Pd-catalyzed oxidative cross-coupling reaction between allenyl ketones and terminal alkynes. This novel synthesis of alkynylated furans with wide substrate scope is operationally simple and tolerates various functional groups. Mechanistically, the formation of the palladium carbene through cycloisomerization and the subsequent alkynyl migratory insertion are proposed as the key steps in the transformation. The reaction reported in this manuscript further demonstrates the generality of the carbene-based cross coupling.
INTRODUCTIONTakotsubo syndrome is an acute heart disease that mimics the typical features of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) . Although takotsubo syndrome has an uncertain prevalence in the general population, in women with suspected ACS, the prevalence is estimated to be around 5-6% . The annual incidence is very low and is approximately 0.02% .Unlike ACS, TS is reversible and the heart often heals within four to eight changes weeks. The syndrome is characterised by transient systolic and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction with wall motion abnormalities . This condition, which was first described by Dote et al. in Japan in 1990 , usually affects postmenopausal women who have experienced some physical or psychological stress. However, it can also occur in the absence of these triggers .The prevalence of saccular aneurysms in the general population is estimated at 3.2%. Approximately 20 to 30% of cases present in the form of multiple aneurysms . Intracranial aneurysms are generally diagnosed after episodes of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), which causes a high rate of morbidity and mortality . Rupture of an aneurysm is believed to be responsible for 0.4 to 0.6% of all aneurysm deaths, and approximately 10% of patients die before arriving at the hospital. Takotsubo syndrome is generally reported to have an incidence of 0.8-17% in patients with SAH caused by ruptured aneurysm . However, this case report is relevant for the clinical and pathophysiological observation of the possible association between aneurysms of the internal carotid arteries (ICA) and TS, with the latter being able to serve as an alert for possible aneurysms and thus allow for intervention prior to disruption.
Here, we report a cobalt-catalyzed sequential dehydrogenative Heck silylation/hydroamination of styrenes with hydrosilane and diazo compound to access 1-amino-2-silyl compounds with excellent regioselectivity. This difunctionalization reaction could undergo smoothly using 1 mol% catalyst loading with good functional group tolerance. Not only di- and tri-substituted hydrosilanes, but also alkoxysilane are suitable, which does explore the scope of the family of 1-amino-2-silyl compounds. The ligand relay phenomenon between neutral tridentate NNN ligand and anionic NNN ligand is observed for the first time via absorption spectra analysis in this one-pot, two-step transformations. The primary mechanism has been proposed based on the control experiments.
A single-mode-fiber (SMF)-multimode-fiber (MMF)-tri-core-fiber (TCF) Michelson probe structure is proposed for trace detection of canine distemper virus (CDV). One end of the TCF is cut flat and fused with the multimode fiber, and the other end is coated with a silver film to enhance the reflection, and an optic-fiber sensing probe with SMF-MMF-TCF structure is obtained. The (PDDA/PSS) 3 multilayer film is modified on the surface of the fiber by layer-by-layer self-assembly method as a polyelectrolyte binder to immobilize CDV antibodies to form a (PDDA/PSS) 3/CDV antibody composite membrane for specific detection of CDV antigens. The response-recovery test of the sensor is performed to verify its repeatability. The detection limit, the sensitivity, and the linear fitting degree for CDV antigen are 0.1236 pg/ml, 1.1776 dB/(pg/ml), and 0.9899, respectively. At the same time, the stability, selectivity, and clinical samples of the sensors were also verified.
Children fast-map new words to their referents early on but do not show robust retention until much later. This paper examines whether children’s interest in a natural category relates to retention of newly learned words in that category. German-speaking 24-month-olds and 38-month-olds (n = 88, 41 female) were trained on novel word-object-associations from different categories. Pupillary arousal and parental reports served as indices of interest in the objects and categories presented. Recognition and retention were tested directly after exposure, five minutes later, and 24 hours later. Both younger and older children showed successful word-object recognition and retention. Furthermore, interest in the category modulates young children’s recognition and retention of newly learned word-object associations from semantic categories across ages.
A one-pot synthesis of vicinal diamines using indoles, pyrazoles, and phenothiazines in a tandem multi-component reaction is developed. The utilization of a copper-iodine co-catalytic system enables the generation of a diverse range of vicinal diaminoindoles with good selectivity and moderate to good yields. An attractive aspect of this method is that it can be conducted under mild and environmentally friendly conditions, showcasing its potential as an alternative approach for synthesizing vicinal diamines. Moreover, the use of a multicomponent tandem reaction highlights the power and versatility of such strategies in synthetic chemistry.
For the first time, the 2022 CASP (Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction) community experiment included a section on computing multiple conformations for protein and RNA structures. There was full or partial success in reproducing the ensembles for four of the nine targets, an encouraging result. For protein structures, enhanced sampling with variations of the AlphaFold2 deep learning method was by far the most effective approach. One substantial conformational change caused by a single mutation across a complex interface was accurately reproduced. In two other assembly modeling cases, methods succeeded in sampling conformations near to the experimental ones even though environmental factors were not included in the calculations. An experimentally derived flexibility ensemble allowed a single accurate RNA structure model to be identified. Difficulties included how to handle sparse or low-resolution experimental data and the current lack of effective methods for modeling RNA/protein complexes. However, these and other obstacles appear addressable.
Background Understanding the cellular host factors that promote and inhibit viral entry is important for identifying viral countermeasures. CRISPR whole genome screens can be used to rapidly discover host factors that contribute to or impair viral entry. However, when using the live viruses and cellular lethality for selection, these screens can identify an overwhelming number of genes without specificity for the stage of the viral infection cycle. New screening methods are needed to identify host machinery contributing to specific steps of viral infection. Here, we developed a CRISPR whole genome screen and counter screen strategy based on a pseudoviral platform that allowed identification of genes specific to SARS-CoV-2 spike and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein VSV-G mediated entry. Methods To focus the screen onto the entry step, we used non-lytic fluorescent reporters in combination with a comparative counter screen strategy to distinguish host genes affecting the pseudoviral reporter from those unique to envelope-mediated entry. Screening of SARS-CoV-2 spike and VSV-G on the same lentiviral pseudovirus allowed identification of entry-specific genes relative to genes associated with retro-transcription, integration, and reporter expression from the lentiviral pseudovirus. Second, a Cre-Gag fusion protein in the pseudovirus was used to bypass retro-transcription and integration by directly activating a floxed GFP reporter upon entry to reduce the number of gene hits and increase specificity for viral entry. Results Our approach correctly identified SARS-CoV-2 and VSV-G receptors ACE2 and LDLR, respectively and distinguished genes associated with retroviral reporter expression from envelope-mediated entry. Moreover, the CRE-Gag fusion/flox reporter increased the screen specificity for viral entry associated genes. Validation of a few hits demonstrates that this approach distinguishes envelope-specific host factors from genes affecting reporter expression. Conclusion Overall, this approach provides a new strategy for identifying host genes influencing viral entry without the confounding complexity of live-viral screens which produce long gene lists associated with all aspects of viral pathogenesis and replication. This approach provides a pathway for increasing the specificity of CRISPR whole genome screens for identifying host genes contributing to specific steps in viral infection.