Deferring non-emergent cardiac surgery became the strategy of choice for several international healthcare systems afflicted by high case burdens of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19) in order to both conserve valuable healthcare resources and protect patients from possible exposure. Missing from the available dataset to help guide policy development has been a clear understanding of the extent to which COVID-19 infection modulates cardiac surgery outcomes. In their investigation, Bonalumi and colleagues uncovered an inpatient COVID-19 positivity rate of almost 10 times higher than that of the general Italian population, as well as a mortality rate over 20 times higher amongst cardiac surgery patients with perioperative COVID-19 infection compared to those COVID-negative. While the summation of available evidence points to the serious consideration cardiac surgeons must give to delaying surgeries during the COVID-19 pandemic, recognition must be given to the risks that postponing cardiac surgery may have on patient outcomes. Emerging data is beginning to demonstrate the efficacy of vaccination in preventing postoperative COVID-19 infection and morbidity.
Bleeding Control Strategies In Coronary Artery Bypass SurgeryFatih Avni Bayraktara MD, Mehmet Senel Bademcia MD, Cemal Kocaaslana MD, Ahmet Oztekina MD, and Ebuzer AydinaMD.a Istanbul Medeniyet University, Medicine Faculty, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Istanbul, TurkeyCorresponding Author: Fatih Avni Bayraktar, M.D, Assist.Prof.Post Publication Corresponding Author: Fatih Avni Bayraktar,M.D, Assist.Prof.Istanbul Medeniyet University Medicine Faculty, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery.Address: Dr. Erkin St. No:12 Kadikoy, Istanbul, 34722, Turkey.Mail address: email@example.comDear Editor;We read with interest the article entitled “Factors associated with excessive bleeding following elective on‐pump coronary artery bypass grafting” by Bastopcu et al (1).In this retrospective study, the authors focused on preoperative and operative factors affecting excessive bleeding after on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Some points in the article caught our attention. Inherited bleeding disorders need pre-planning in the preoperative and operative period of cardiac surgery (2). Were the bleeding disorders questioned, while taking the anamnesis of the included patients?Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common complications after coronary artery bypass surgery (3). Anticoagulant therapy is inevitable in patients with atrial fibrillation. Patients with anticoagulation therapy due to atrial fibrillation or any other cause is not mentioned in the text which may be associated with postoperative bleeding.And finally, when the current literature is reviewed, it is seen that the use of peroperative tranexamic acid has a reducing effect on bleeding after coronary bypass surgery. (4). In this study, did the authors use tranexamic acid? We congratulate the authors about their manuscript. We look forward to hear the authors’ opinions on these matters.Bastopcu M, Özhan A, Erdoğan SB, Kehlibar T. Factors associated with excessive bleeding following elective on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. J Card Surg . 2021;36(4):1277-1281.Bhave P, McGiffin D, Shaw J, et al. Guide to performing cardiac surgery in patients with hereditary bleeding disorders. J Card Surg . 2015;30(1):61-69.Eikelboom R, Sanjanwala R, Le ML, Yamashita MH, Arora RC. Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation After Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Ann Thorac Surg . 2021;111(2):544-554.Boer C, Meesters MI, Milojevic M, et al. Task Force on Patient Blood Management for Adult Cardiac Surgery of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) and the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesiology (EACTA). 2017 EACTS/EACTA Guidelines on patient blood management for adult cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth . 2018;32(1):88-120.
One of the surgical options available for ischemic mitral regurgitation is mitral valve repair but is limited by recurrent regurgitation as it is experienced by a significant percent of patients and has a negative impact on patient outcomes. Efforts to model and identify predictors of recurrent MR rely on complicated echocardiographic and clinical measurements that are subjective and not routinely collected. Kachroo et. al. approached this problem in a unique way by using the STS database and Machine Learning to develop models that predict recurrent MR or death at one year. The STS database contains many routinely collected demographic and clinical parameters but requires a methodology, such as Machine Learning, that will accommodate collinearity and the unknown significance of many predictors. Kachroo et. al. developed three good Machine Learning models with AUC 0.72-0.75. Data- driven selection of important predictors showed that three revascularization targets, peripheral vascular disease and use of beta blockers are most predictive of recurrent mitral regurgitation. We applaud the authors in pioneering a novel methodology and paving the way for a bright future in Machine Learning which includes integrating medical imaging, waveform, and genomic data to practice personalized medicine for our patients.
In the study “Long-term outcomes following surgical repair of coronary artery fistula in adults”, Wada and associates, retrospectively evaluated 13 consecutive patients that underwent surgical repair of CAF No deaths, significant ST-T changes or CAF-related events were reported in a follow-up period of 66.2 months, and 1 patient showed poor contrast RCA#2 on postoperative coronary CT with a myocardial scintigraphy showing no significant change compared to the preoperative state Coronary artery fistulas (CAF) are rare congenital or acquired malformations in the connection of the coronary vessels, first described by Krause in 1865 (2). They can be classified as coronary-cameral fistulas, which connect coronary arteries with any of the heart chambers, or coronary artery malformations, which connect coronary arteries with systemic or pulmonary vessels. Congenital CAFs are normally a result of abnormal embryological development, acquired CAFs are commonly a result of cardiac traumatic injuries, and iatrogenic CAFs are usually a result of interventional cardiac procedures. This condition is still highly undiagnosed, as around 75% of incidentally-found CAFs are small and clinically silent, but it is estimated that CAFs are present in about 0.9% of the general population In our experience, we have a CAF incidence of 0.05% in 10,000 cardiac surgeries, which have demonstrated beneficial outcomes of the surgical repair of CAFs in adults . Authors of this article must be congratulated for the successful development of the study and for the contributions to the literature on this rare condition
Background: The optimal treatment of high-risk PE with cardiac arrest is still controversial although various treatment approaches have been developed and improved. Here, we present a serie of patients with high-risk PE showing hemodynamic collapse, who were successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as an adjunct to EKOS™ acoustic pulse thrombolysis. Method: From April 2016 to June 2020, 29 patients with high-risk PE with cardiac arrest were retrospectively included. The mean age was 55.3 ± 9.2 years. Twelve (41.3%) patients were female. All patients had cardiac arrest, either as an initial presentation or in-hospital after the presentation. All patients exhibited acute symptoms, computed tomography (CT) evidence of large thrombus burden, and severe right ventricular dysfunction. Primary outcome was all-cause 30-day mortality. Results: Twenty-two patients survived to hospital discharge, with a mean ICU stay of 9.9 ± 1.6 days (range, 7 to 22 days) and mean length of hospital stay of 23.7 ± 8.5 days (range, 11 to 44 days). Six patients died from refractory shock. Ninety-day mortality was 24.1% (7/29). The Mean ECMO duration was 3.5 ± 1.1 days and the mean RV/LV ratio decreased from 1.31 ± 0.17 to 0.92 ± 0.11 in patients who survived to discharge. The mean tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) dose for survivor patients was 20.5 ± 1.6 mg. Conclusion: Patients with high-risk pulmonary embolism who suffer a cardiac arrest have high morbidity and mortality. APT complemented by ECMO could be a successful treatment option for patients who have high-risk PE with circulatory collapse.
The use of the Radial Artery (RA) as a conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been steadily increasing since the early 1990’s and based on the most recent data may well become the standard of care for patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) requiring multiple arterial grafts. The TRA approach for cardiac catherization has also increased steadily in use by interventional cardiologists owing to its reduction in bleeding and vascular complications when compared with the femoral approach and is now considered the preferred arterial access. However, prior use of transradial access (TRA) for cardiac catherization is a contra-indication for the use of the RA for CABG because of high rates of structural damage to the vascular wall and potential for graft failure. In this issue of the Journal of Cardiac Surgery Clarke et al. examine the RA of two patients who had TRA for coronary angiography 8 and 12 years prior and note that both patients had chronic injury with dissection and obstruction of the lumen secondary to fibrosis suggesting that TRA causes long-term and irreversible damage rendering them unsuitable as conduits for CABG.
The results of a meta-analysis are more than just the reported odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, and P value. Of equal importance is the fine print of the study which should include assessment of risk of bias, certainty in evidence, and heterogeneity in the individual point estimates and confidence intervals. These areas all have influence on the quality of the data in the analysis. Reading and understanding the fine print is important.
What can be seen from the case report by Verzelloni et al. has a double value, beyond the case itself. First of all, the use of platelet aggregation assessment tests, such as TEG-PM, allows clinicians to verify the exact timing between the suspension of thienopyridines and the possibility of surgery without further temporal delays and is also able to favor the evolution of ischemic problems or hemodynamic instability not easily treatable. It therefore allows clinicians to optimize the bleeding / thrombosis matching. Secondly, the use of point of care methodologies for the evaluation of platelet aggregation allows us to evaluate the adequacy of the anti-aggregation, facilitating, where resistance or percentages of anti-aggregation are lower than expected, modification of the therapeutic regimen.
Title: Bicuspid Aortic Valve: Progression of Stenosis and Clinical RelevanceRunning Head: Progression of Stenosis in Bicuspid Aortic ValveAuthors: Saqib Masroor, MD, MBA, MHSUniversity of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiothoracic SurgeryMeeting Presentation: NoneDisclosure: NoneWord Count: 717
Objective: Valve-sparing root replacement is commonly used for management of aortic root aneurysms in elective setting, but its technical complexity hinders its broader adoption for acute Type-A Aortic Dissection (ATAAD). The Florida Sleeve (FS) procedure is a simplified form of valve sparing aortic root reconstruction that does not require coronary reimplantation. Here, we present our outcomes of the Florida Sleeve (FS) repair in patients with dilated roots in the setting of an ATAAD. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 24 consecutive patients (2002-2018) treated with FS procedure for ATAAD. Demographic, operative, and postoperative outcomes were queried from our institutional database. Long term follow-up was obtained from clinic visits for local patients, and with telephone and telehealth measures otherwise. Results: Mean age was 49 ± 14 years with 19 (79%) males. Marfan syndrome was present in 4 (16.7%) patients and 14 (58.3) had ≥2+ aortic insufficiency (AI). Nine (37.2%) had preoperative mal-perfusion or shock. The FS was combined with hemi-arch replacement in 15 (62.5%) patients and a zone-2 arch replacement in 9 (37.5%) patients. There were 2 (8.3%) early postoperative mortalities. Median follow-up period was 46 months (range; 0.3-146). The median survival of the entire cohort was 143.4 months. One patient (4.2%) required redo aortic valve replacement for unrelated aortic valve endocarditis at 30 months postoperatively. Conclusion: FS is simplified and reproducible valve-sparing root repair. In appropriate patients, it can be applied safely in acute Stanford type-A aortic dissection with excellent early and long-term results.
The swift advances in interventional cardiology combined with the increasing risk of cardiac surgical procedures resulted in diminishing volume of coronary and valvular surgery and affected the future of cardiac surgery service and training. Application to cardiac surgery training programs have steadily declined. This cross-sectional study aimed at identifying main weakness facing cardiac surgery and advocating some recommendations to improve the status of current and future of cardiac surgery.
Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery from the opposite sinus is a rare congenital condition that can cause sudden death in young people. When it is associated with acute aortic dissection, acute myocardial infarction can occur due to enlargement of the sinus of Valsalva. We report the case of a 71-year-old man with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva, who developed right ventricular infarction due to the compression of the right coronary artery between the aorta and pulmonary artery trunk.
The heart transplantation (HT) is undoubtedly the best treatment for end-stage heart failure patients (2). However, the organ shortage remains a major challenge in cardiac surgery. Facing this problem, the medical community starts to extend the donor criteria to select more suitable organs for HT. The use of ECDs is still controversial, since it is associated with a high incidence of primary graft failure (3), and although it guarantees longer survival than without transplantation, there is still some hesitation in accepting this practice.
Background: Thoracic aortic aneurysm is a significant risk factor for aortic dissection and rupture. Guidelines recommend referral of patients to a cardiovascular specialist for periodic surveillance imaging with surgical intervention determined primarily by aneurysm size. We investigated the association between socioeconomic status and surveillance practices in patients with ascending aortic aneurysms. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed records of 465 consecutive patients diagnosed between 2013-2016 with ascending aortic aneurysm ≥4cm on computed tomography scans. Primary outcomes were clinical follow-up with a cardiovascular specialist and aortic surveillance imaging within 2 years following index scan. We stratified patients into quartiles using the area deprivation index (ADI), a validated percentile measure of 17 variables characterizing socioeconomic status at the census block group level. Competing risks analysis was used to determine interquartile differences in risk of death prior to follow up with a cardiovascular specialist. Results: Lower socioeconomic status was associated with significantly lower rates of surveillance imaging and referral to a cardiovascular specialist. On competing risks regression, the ADI quartile with lowest socioeconomic status had lower hazard of follow-up with a cardiologist or cardiac surgeon prior to death (HR 0.46 [0.34, 0.62], p<0.001). Though there were no differences in aneurysm size at time of surgical repair, patients in the lowest socioeconomic quartile were more frequently symptomatic at surgery than other quartiles (92% vs 23-38%, p<0.001). Conclusion: Patients with lower socioeconomic status receive less timely follow-up imaging and specialist referral for thoracic aortic aneurysms, resulting in surgical intervention only when alarming symptoms are already present.
Letter to the Editor: Telemedicine in the era of coronavirus 19: Implications for postoperative care in cardiac surgeryContributing Authors:Anish Verma (Corresponding Author) – Fifth Year Medical StudentRachel Pathimagaraj – Fourth Year Medical StudentDaniel Warrington - Fifth Year Medical StudentJames Whiteway - Fifth Year Medical StudentAll authors are based at the United Kingdom institution, The University of Manchester – Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health.
ABSTRACT Post infarction ventricular septal rupture (PIVSR) is an infrequent but potentially fatal complication of acute myocardial infarction. • The 30-day mortality rate with the transcatheter approach when performed in the acute phase (less than two weeks) was 25.3% compared to 50% when surgery is performed in the acute phase (within three weeks). • There is no correlation between defect size and mortality. • NYHA class IV and time to VSD closure are risk predictors for transcatheter closure for a 30-day mortality rate of 31.5%.
Background: The radial artery (RA) is often utilized for diagnostic coronary angiography and percutaneous intervention. Recent high-level evidence supports RA use in preference to saphenous vein as a conduit for coronary revascularization. Aim: To demonstrate gross and histologic changes of the RA following transradial access. Methods: We present two patients who had open RA harvest for coronary bypass surgery after transradial catheterization. Results: Examination 8 years after transradial catheterization demonstrated thickened intima and dissection, and examination 12 years following transradial catheterization with percutaneous coronary intervention demonstrated chronic dissection with thickened intima and near occlusion of the lumen. Conclusion: Transradial access via the RA, even after several years, is associated significant injury, making it unusable as a conduit for surgical coronary revascularization. A RA that has been utilized for catheterization should not be considered for coronary revascularization.