Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare, but severe complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It develops approximately four weeks after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and involves hyperinflammation with multisystem injury, commonly progressing to shock. The exact pathomechanism of MIS-C is not known, but immunological dysregulation leading to cytokine storm plays a central role. In response to the emergence of MIS-C, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) established a task force (TF) within the Immunology Section in May 2021. With the use of an online Delphi process, TF formulated clinical statements regarding immunological background of MIS-C, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and the role of COVID-19 vaccinations. MIS-C case definition is broad, and diagnosis is made based on clinical presentation. The immunological mechanism leading to MIS-C is unclear and depends on activating multiple pathways leading to hyperinflammation. Current management of MIS-C relies on supportive care in combination with immunosuppressive and/or immunomodulatory agents. The most frequently used agents are systemic steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin. Despite good overall short-term outcome, MIS-C patients should be followed-up at regular intervals after discharge, focusing on cardiac disease, organ damage, and inflammatory activity. COVID-19 vaccination is a safe and effective measure to prevent MIS-C. In anticipation of further research, we propose a convenient and clinically practical algorithm for managing MIS-C developed by the Immunology Section of the EAACI.
Editorial Comment on: „Short-acting β 2 -agonist use and asthma exacerbations in Swedish children: A SABINA Junior study.”Boccabella C. 1, Kalayci O. 2, Eigenmann P. 3Affiliations1Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Sciences, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A Gemelli” - IRCCS, University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy2Pediatric Allergy and Asthma Unit, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey3Pediatric Allergy Unit, Department of Women-Children-Teenagers, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, SwitzerlandAsthma is one of the most common chronic lung diseases with major public health consequences for both children and adults, including high morbidity and even mortality (1). For years, standard asthma treatment for mild asthma has been as needed short acting beta agonist (SABA). Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines have questioned this approach suggesting that the use of SABAs should always be accompanied by inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) (2). Recently, Papi et al. have shown that in adolescents and adults with uncontrolled moderate-to-severe asthma receiving inhaled glucocorticoid-containing maintenance therapies, the risk of severe asthma exacerbation was significantly lower with as-needed use of a fixed-dose combination of albuterol and budesonide than with as-needed use of albuterol alone (3). In children, on the other hand, even though many years ago Martinez et al. have shown that inhaled corticosteroids as rescue medication with albuterol might be an effective step-down strategy for children aged 5-18 years with well controlled mild asthma , SABA has remained to be the only reliever option recommended for those under 6 years of age (4).The SABA use IN Asthma (SABINA) program in adults and adolescents with asthma reported that SABA overuse (≥3 canisters/year) is prevalent in Sweden and is associated with poor asthma-related outcomes (5). Melen et al and the SABINA Junior investigators have attempted to investigate the same question in the paediatric population (6). This retrospective cohort study conducted in Sweden, has included patients with physician-diagnosed asthma (aged 0-17 years) in secondary care. Patients have been categorized by the number of SABA canisters collected (dichotomized as 0-2 vs ≥3, based on evidence from studies in adults and adolescents) from pharmacies at baseline and followed up over 12 months (5,7). During the baseline year, SABA overuse (≥3 canisters) has been registered for the majority of the study population, particularly for those aged 0-5 years. A strong correlation between SABA overuse and increased risk of exacerbation episodes has been observed. This result confirms what has been already seen among adult patients, that is strongly connected to the inflammatory nature of asthma disease. SABAs can resolve the immediate bronchospasm but have no anti-inflammatory actions and no effect on the late phase of inflammation. Furthermore, chronic and long-term use of SABAs seems also to contribute to a decreased response to SABA therapy as a reliever (8,9). SABINA investigators have also conducted a post-hoc analysis, stratifying study population based on the presence of atopic comorbidity. Interestingly, increased SABA use has been associated with a higher exacerbation risk also in nonatopic patients with asthma. This may be due to the lack of response to ICSs that is a distinctive aspect of non-atopic population who may in turn resort to the use SABA reliever treatment.There are still several questions that remain unanswered in children mainly due to the difficulties in obtaining data in this specific population. First, recruitment of paediatric patients especially those <6 years old into randomized controlled trials (RCTs) can be a challenge due to ethical issues. In addition, diagnosis of asthma in this age group is often problematic. Despite all the limits of a retrospective study, SABINA study provides extremely useful data in a population where there are hardly any solid data. These results emphasize the need for a better understanding of childhood asthma endotypes and the response to different drugs and disease behaviour over time. Avoiding asthma exacerbations and consequent disease progression should be the principal aim of clinical management in children. This may only be possible by linking the underlying pathophysiology with the clinical response to anti-asthma treatment.References1. Asher MI, Rutter CE, Bissell K, Chiang CY, El Sony A, Ellwood E, et al. Worldwide trends in the burden of asthma symptoms in school-aged children: Global Asthma Network Phase I cross-sectional study. Lancet. 2021;398(10311):1569–80.2. GINA committee. Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention 2022 Update [Internet]. Global Initiative for Asthma. 2022. p. 225. Available from: http://www.ginasthma.org3. Alberto Papi, M.D., Bradley E. Chipps, M.D., Richard Beasley, D.Sc., Reynold A. Panettieri, Jr., M.D., Elliot Israel, M.D., Mark Cooper, M.Sc., Lynn Dunsire, M.Sc., Allison Jeynes-Ellis, M.D., Eva Johnsson, M.D., Robert Rees, Ph.D., Christy Cappelletti, P MD. Albuterol–Budesonide Fixed-Dose Combination Rescue Inhaler for Asthma. N Engl J Med [Internet]. 2022 Aug 17;387(7):662–3. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc22091894. Martinez L, Handel A, Shen Y, Chakraburty S, Quinn FD, Stein CM, et al. detect tuberculosis in child contacts are urgently needed in Sub-Saharan Africa to improve case detection. n. 2018;197(9):2016–9.5. Nwaru BI, Ekström M, Hasvold P, Wiklund F, Telg G, Janson C. Overuse of short-acting β2-agonists in asthma is associated with increased risk of exacerbation and mortality: A nationwide cohort study of the global SABINA programme. Eur Respir J [Internet]. 2020;55(4). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01872-20196. Melen E., Nwaaru B., Wiklund F., Licht S., Telg G., Maslova E., Valk R., Tran TN, Ekstrom M. JC. Short-acting β 2 -agonist use and asthma exacerbations in Swedish children: A SABINA Junior study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol Manuscr.7. Bloom CI, Cabrera C, Arnetorp S, Coulton K, Nan C, van der Valk RJP, et al. Asthma-Related Health Outcomes Associated with Short-Acting β2-Agonist Inhaler Use: An Observational UK Study as Part of the SABINA Global Program. Adv Ther [Internet]. 2020;37(10):4190–208. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12325-020-01444-58. Lohse MJ, Benovic JL, Caron MG, Lefkowitz RJ. Multiple pathways of rapid β2-adrenergic receptor desensitization. Delineation with specific inhibitors. J Biol Chem. 1990;265(6):3202–11.9. Gauvreau GM, Jordana M, Watson RM, Cockcroft DW, O’Byrne PM. Effect of regular inhaled albuterol on allergen-induced late responses and sputum eosinophils in asthmatic subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;156(6):1738–45.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and food allergy (FA) are common conditions, especially during the first 12 months of life. When GOR leads to troublesome symptoms, that affect daily functioning of the infant and family, it is referred to GOR disease (GORD). The role of food allergens as a cause of GORD remains controversial. This European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) position paper aims to review the evidence for FA-associated GORD in young children and translate this into clinical practice that guides healthcare professionals through the diagnosis of suspected FA-associated GORD and the medical and dietary management. The Task Force (TF) on non-IgE mediated allergy consists of EAACI experts in paediatric gastroenterology, allergy, dietetics and psychology from Europe, United Kingdom, United States, Turkey and Brazil. Six clinical questions were formulated, amended and approved by the TF to guide this publication. A systematic literature search using PubMed, Cochrane and EMBASE databases (until June 2021) using a predefined inclusion criteria based on the 6 questions was used. The TF also gained access to the database from the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology working group, who published guidelines on GORD and ensured that all publications used within that position paper were included. For each of the 6 questions, practice points were formulated, followed by a modified Delphi method consisting of anonymous web-based voting that was repated with modified practice points where required, until at least 80% consensus for each practice point was achieved. This TF position paper shares the process, the discussion and consensus on all practice points on FA-associated GORD.
Editorial to the special issue “Environmental influences on childhood asthma”Back in 1892, Sir William Osler gave an accurate description of asthma as a disease that is associated with “spasm of the bronchial muscles, inflammation of the smaller bronchioles, bizarre and extraordinary variety of circumstances and cold infections, often running in families (1,2). This is basically a true reflection of our modern understanding of asthma which states that asthma is a complex genetic disorder that involves interactions between genetic and environmental factors.Since the human genetic makeup has not changed significantly in the last couple of decades, there is reason to believe that the overall increase in asthma prevalence (3) can be attributed to the changing environmental conditions of modern life. The role of environment in asthma is not limited to its role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Since it is currently not possible to change the genetic make-up of an individual underlying a complex genetic disorder such as asthma, modification of environmental conditions emerges as a significant tool for its treatment. Therefore, understanding the environmental factors that play an important role in asthma is crucial in understanding the disease pathogenesis as well as modification of factors that modulate the inception and progress of the disease as well as its treatment.Various studies published in the last years in the journal and included in this virtual issue have addressed these questions. Garcia-Serna et al. have found out that gestational exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) may increase the pro-inflammatory and Th2-related cytokines in newborns which might influence immune system responses later in life (4). Similarly, Pesce et al. (5) have investigated the association between prenatal exposures to heavy metals and atopic diseases. The serum concentrations of lead, cadmium and manganese were assessed in maternal blood samples collected during pregnancy and in cord blood of 651 mother-children pairs. The authors have concluded that the levels of cadmium in cord blood were associated with greater risk of asthma at the age of 8. Baek et al. have documented that exposure to phthalates are associated with airway dysfunction in childhood and this effect was partially attributable to increased serum periostin levels (6). Regarding the association between the genes and environment, Theodorou et al. (7) have investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in 232 children who were selected from two cross-sectional cohorts and one birth cohort study. They have isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from children with asthma along with healthy controls and stimulated them with farm-dust extracts or lipopolysaccharide. The results have shown that the children with asthma have expressed significantly less dual-specificity phosphatase-1 (DUSP1) which is the negative regulator of MAPK pathway. They have conclusively indicated the possible role of DUSP1 for future therapeutical interventions regarding the anti-inflammatory features of farming environments.In an effort to further elucidate the environmental factors that are central to our understanding of asthma, the journal has started a review series to provide a comprehensive picture on the role of environment on various aspect of asthma. Major subheadings includedBiodiversityUrban exposuresGene-environment interactionsFarm effectAir pollutionClimate changeAllergensDiet microbiome and obesityIn the virtual issue of the journal Tari Haahtela (8) has focused on the effect of biodiversity. Evidence supports that the immunomodulating roles of different micro-organisms may be protective for asthma and allergic diseases. The studies from the neighboring Finnish and Russian Karelia regions, which the author named as “the living laboratory”, have shown strong evidence for the central role of environment and lifestyle which modify the human microbiome, immune balance, and thus allergy and asthma risk. Diversity of the human microbiome as well as the diversity of the natural environment that we live in and more contact with the nature are important determinants of physical health.Grant et al. (9) have focused on the influence of urban exposures on childhood asthma. The authors have meticulously summarized and analyzed the results of previous studies which aimed to investigate the interaction between indoor allergens, microbes, indoor and outdoor pollutants, social determinants and childhood asthma along with the opportunities for intervention. Multiple environmental exposures and influences contribute to the increased incidence of asthma and excess asthma morbidity among children with asthma living in urban communities. Indoor pest allergen and mold exposures have been repeatedly linked to increased asthma diagnosis, symptoms, and exacerbations in urban children. However, studies in high-risk urban populations also found that early life pest allergen exposure, along with microbial and endotoxin exposure may be associated with a decreased risk of wheezing and asthma suggesting that the association is more complex than previously thought.Since asthma prevalence varies widely depending on the socio-economical level, changes to help reduce inequities and inequalities in social determinants of health such as poverty, housing disrepair, higher rates of obesity, and chronic stress may produce positive effects at the population-level.Hernandez-Pacheco et al (10) have reviewed the latest gene-environment interaction (GxE) studies in childhood asthma. They have summarized the role of various environmental exposures and the current state of knowledge on asthma genetics. The field of GxE in asthma has drastically evolved together with technological advances over the last years. However, despite reports on the effect of numerous environmental factors on childhood asthma, the availability of detailed and diverse exposure data is limited. Tobacco smoke remains to be the most accessible and extensively explored factor followed by traffic-related air pollution in GxE studies.Airway epithelium seems to be central in gene-environment interactions. The effect of the exposure to certain environmental factors early in life on the modification of the risk and severity of asthma later in childhood is partially dependent on the functionality and integrity of the airway epithelium. It is known that the environmental exposures can trigger an inflammatory response and the disruption of the barrier and mucociliary function.Although there are several methodological and conceptual challenges with GxE interaction studies, recent data have led to new insights into childhood asthma pathophysiology which is best exemplified by the 17q12-21 asthma locus. Some of the SNPs at this locus seem to be associated with the onset of childhood asthma, thereby highlighting the importance of age related factors in gene environment interactions.The need for longitudinal and functional studies which provide insights into the biological mechanisms underlying the observed associations between environmental exposures and epigenetic changes that modify the asthma risk is highlighted.Another extensively studied environmental factor that is associated with childhood as is the so called “farm effect”. Frei et al. (11) have summarized the current knowledge on how “farm effect” influences the immune homeostasis during the intrauterine period and in childhood with a focus on immune mechanisms induced by environmental microbial diversity and microbial components. Farming lifestyle factors including nutrition influence the immune homeostasis either by regulating the innate immune system or by induction of regulatory T cells or TH1. We see diversity as a significant factor also in the farm effect. Diversity of environmental microbes, the diversity of the gut microbiome, or the diversity of the nutrition emerge as significant factors.Paciencia et al. (12) investigated the association and mechanisms between air pollution and asthma in children along with the precautions that should be taken to reduce the burden of air pollution on asthma. Environmental conditions are not shared equally across the populations, regions, and settings where people live, work, and spend their time. Urban conditions and air quality are not only important features for national and local authorities to shape healthy cities and protect their citizens from environmental and health risks, but they also provide opportunities to mitigate inequalities in the most deprived areas where the environmental burden is highest. Actions to avoid exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants should be complementary at different levels –individual, local, and national levels – to take strong measures to protect children.Taken together, these reviews provide a very comprehensive coverage on the role of environmental factors on childhood asthma and suggest that efforts to modify these factors may have beneficial effects not only on the individual level but also at the population level.S. Tolga Yavuz1Ömer Kalayci2Philippe A. Eigenmann3
Background: In the absence of a clear clinical history of reaction, diagnosis of cashew allergy using skin prick tests (SPT) or cashew-specific IgE requires a high number of oral food challenges (OFC). By using Ana o 3 sIgE alone, or a two-step diagnostic algorithm using cashew sIgE followed by Ana o 3 sIgE, there is a reduced need for OFC. We aimed to perform a cost comparison for both of these approaches compared to cashew SPT alone. Methods: Pooled individual level data from 6 studies was used to determine diagnostic accuracy and OFC rate. Two studies used cashew SPT (n=567, 198 allergic), with 95% positive and negative predictive values of ≥12mm and <3mm. Four studies were included in the pathways for Ana o 3 sIgE alone or a 2-step algorithm incorporating cashew and Ana o 3 sIgE (n=271, 156 allergic). Cut-offs used were ≥8.5kUA/L and ≤0.1kUA/L for cashew sIgE and ≥0.35kUA/L and ≤0.1kUA/L for Ana o 3 sIgE. Costs were constructed based on unit prices from hospital inpatient admissions, expenses incurred by families, individual patient data on allergic reaction types and rates and adrenaline autoinjector carriage, applying a health system perspective. Results: Modelled data through the Ana o 3 pathway resulted in a 46.43% cost reduction (\euro307,406/1000 patients) compared to using cashew SPT alone (\euro573,854/1000 patients). The 2-step algorithm resulted in a 44.94% cost reduction compared to SPT alone (\euro315,952.82/1000 patients). Both the Ana o 3 pathway and 2-step algorithm resulted in a 79-80% reduction in OFCs compared to SPT. Conclusions: Using Ana o 3 as a standalone test for cashew allergy diagnosis or a 2-step algorithm incorporating cashew sIgE and Ana o 3 sIgE is accurate and results in a large reduction in both OFCs and health system costs compared to cashew SPT alone.
Whether you benefit from high-quality urban environments, such as those rich in green and blue spaces, that may offer benefits to allergic and respiratory health depends on where you live and work. Environmental inequality, therefore, results from the unequal distribution of the risks and benefits that stem from interactions with our environment. Within this perspective, this article reviews the evidence for an association between air pollution caused by industrial activities, traffic, disinfection-by-products and tobacco/e-cigarettes and asthma in children. We also discuss the proposed mechanisms by which air pollution increases asthma risk, including environmental epigenetic regulations, oxidative stress, and damage, disrupted barrier integrity, inflammatory pathways, and enhancement of respiratory sensitization to aeroallergens. Environmental air pollution is a major determinant of childhood asthma, but magnitude of effect is not shared equally across the population, regions, and settings where people live, work, and spend their time. Improvement of the exposure assessment, a better understanding of critical exposure time windows, underlying mechanisms, and drivers of heterogeneity may improve the risk estimates. Urban conditions and air quality are not only important features for national and local authorities to shape healthy cities and protect their citizens from environmental and health risks, but they also provide opportunities to mitigate inequalities in the most deprived areas where the environmental burden is highest. Actions to avoid exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants should be complementary at different levels – individual, local, and national levels – to take effective measures to protect children who have little or no control over the air they breathe.
Race is a Modifier between Parental Allergy and Food Allergy in OffspringAmy A. Eapen, MD, MS*1, Erica Ridley MD*1, Alexandra R. Sitarik MS2, Christine Joseph PhD2, Christian Nageotte, MD1, Rana Misiak, MD1, Dennis Ownby MD3, Christine Johnson PhD2, Edward Zoratti MD1, Haejin Kim MD1.1Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan2Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan3Department of Pediatrics, Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia.*Dr. Eapen and Dr. Ridley are listed as co-first authorsCorresponding author: Amy A. Eapen, MD, One Ford Place, 4B Detroit, MI 48202; Telephone (313) 971-6182; Fax (313) 876-2094; E-mail: email@example.comFunding: Grants from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (R01 A1051598 and P01 A1089473) and the Fund for Henry Ford Hospital.Financial disclosure : There are no financial disclosures of conflicts of interest.Word count: 1191Keywords : Food allergy, race, parental allergy, total IgETo the Editor,Studies indicate associations between maternal allergy and development of food allergy in their offspring1, with higher food allergy risk among those with more than one first degree relative with allergic disease2. However, unnecessary food avoidance among children of allergic parents has important implications since diverse diets in children may decrease risk for food allergy, and early food introduction with foods such as peanut, can be protective for food allergy3. We sought to assess the association between parental allergic markers and offspring food sensitization and clinical allergy to milk, egg, or peanut.We analyzed data from the racially and socioeconomically diverse population birth cohort, Wayne County Health, Environment, Allergy and Asthma Longitudinal Study (WHEALS) that enrolled pregnant women between 21 to 45 years of age and their offspring following recruitment between September 2003 to December 2007. Details regarding the cohort have been previously published4,5. Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval was obtained for all aspects of the study.Parental factors assessed included questionnaire responses regarding history of allergy or asthma; maternal total IgE and maternal serum allergen specific IgE (sIgE) levels during pregnancy or one month postpartum were also evaluated. Atopy was defined as at least one sIgE ≥ 0.35 IU/mL to eight allergens (dust mite, dog, cat, grass, ragweed,Alternaria , egg, cockroach). Maternal asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy were determined by questionnaire. Due to a paucity of paternal data, only paternal asthma was assessed.Offspring sensitization to milk, egg, or peanut was determined at 2 years of age by sIgE≥ 0.35 IU/mL and also skin prick testing (SPT; wheal size ≥3 mm larger than the saline control defined a positive test). As sensitization to foods does not translate to clinical allergy in all cases, we formed an algorithm to determine those most likely to have true IgE-mediated food allergy6. A consensus panel of allergists determined food allergy status in offspring based on review of the aforementioned data and abstracted chart informations as previously described7. Briefly, infant data were forwarded to the panel only if more than one of the following criteria were met for milk, egg, or peanut allergens: (1) 1 sIgE ≥0.35 IU/mL; (2) a positive SPT; or (3) parental report of infant symptoms potentially related to food allergy plus at least one specific IgE greater than 0.10 IU/mL. To enhance standardization in classifying infants to the presence of IgE- mediated food allergy (IgE-FA), physicians were asked to combine professional experience with investigator-developed protocols based on the Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States8. A third allergist independently reviewed and ruled on discordant decisions.Logistic regression models of parental variables with each outcome were fit. Interaction terms were added to logistic regression models to assess differences in associations based on race, (p<0.10 was considered a significant interaction). Predicted probabilities were used to construct receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and calculate area-under-the-curve (AUC) values.Of 1258 maternal-child pairs, 761 had sufficient data for analysis (Supplemental Figure el). Participant characteristics indicated that families not lost to follow up had higher household incomes, as well as higher maternal education, and a higher proportion of mothers who were married, kept pets, and breastfed the child. rates (Table e1).Associations between parental variables and physician panel determination of food allergy are shown in Table 1. After adjusting for child race, seven out of eight parental characterics of the were significant or of borderline signficance. However, the maximum AUC for ROC curves for any individual variable was 0.54 (maternal total IgE), indicating poor prognostic value (Supplemental Table e2). Maternal atopy, multi-sensitization, and total IgE significantly interacted with race (p=0.012, 0.092, 0.068, respectively) indicating strong associations among African American (AA) children only (Table 1). For example, maternal atopy in non-AA children was not associated with food allergy, but was highly associated among AA children (OR [95% CI]=3.56 [1.55, 9.66], p=0.006).Maternal current asthma was also associated with childhood food allergy (OR [95% CI]=2.27 [1.02, 4.71], p=0.034), and patterns varied by race with history of maternal asthma associated with food allergy only in non-AA children (OR [95% CI]= 4.92 [1.22, 17.14], p=0.015), and current asthma among AA children (OR [95% CI]=2.64 [1.10, 5.92], p=0.022; Table 1).Combined, parental variables only modestly impacted food allergy ROC analyses resulting in an AUC of 0.66. However, the ROC curves differed by race (non-AA AUC 0.36 vs AA AUC 0.71, p=0.002) as shown in Figure 1.Apart from food allergy, parental variables were analysed for associations with offspring sensitization (positive sIgE or SPT) to peanut, milk, or egg at age 2 years. Maternal atopy, multi-sensitization, and total IgE were associated with offspring positive food sIgE sensitization to at least one food. Analysis stratified by race indicated these associations were significant only among AA children. (Supplemental Table e3). Furthermore, maternal current asthma was associated with food sIgE sensitization only among non-AA children (OR [95% CI]=4.90 [1.69, 16.20], p=0.005). ROC curves were significantly different between AA and non-AA children (p=0.036) but predictive ability remained poor in both (AUC 0.55 and 0.44 respectively as in supplemental Figure e2).Maternal multisensitization, total IgE and current asthma, and paternal asthma were statistically significantly associated with any positive food SPTs only among AA children. (Supplemental Table e4). Additionally, race modified the relationship between maternal atopy and SPTs (p=0.039); AA children of atopic mothers had elevated odds of food SPT positivity (OR [95% CI]=1.96 [1.15, 3.45], p=0.016). Despite ROC differences by race (p=0.015; Figure e3), parental variables again had minimal predictive ability.The importance of genetic factors in food allergy is supported by twin studies showing higher concordance of peanut allergy among monozygotic compared with dizygotic twins (64.3% and 6.8%, respectively)9. In addition, heritability among parents and offspring for overall food sensitization have been reported1. However, our report indicates parental variables related to allergy have poor predictive ability for offspring food sensitization. The results from the physician panel demonstrate a moderate degree of risk and capability of predicting food allergy in offspring from parents having clinical characteristics of allergy.We previously reported similar food allergy prevalence for milk, egg, and peanut in AA and non-AA children7. We report here that the inherited risk as measures by parental allergic variables and predictive ability of parental allergic variables on food allergy development in offspring varies by race and is more strongly associated with clinical food allergy versus sensitization, among AA children. The potential mechanisms behind this racial discrepancy are require further studies.Potential study limitations include the physician panel to determine clinical food allergy status as opposed to performing oral food challenges. These challenges are time consuming and impractical to implement in large epidemiological studies10. Another limitation is that non-AA children included multiple ethnicites, which was done to preserve sample size. These groups may have different incidences of disease, and risk may vary. Finally, included and excluded WHEALS participants differed by demographic variables, so findings may not be generalizable to the target population.Parental allergy and atopy, although associated with offspring food allergy, is only a weak predictor and depends upon race. Further studies of familial factors contributing to food allergy and these disparities are needed to precisely identify children at risk for food allergy.Amy A. Eapen, MD, MS*1, Erica Ridley MD*1, Alexandra R. Sitarik MS2, Christine Joseph PhD2, Christian Nageotte, MD1, Rana Misiak, MD1, Dennis Ownby MD3, Christine Johnson PhD2, Edward Zoratti MD1, Haejin Kim MD1.1Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology2Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan3Department of Pediatrics, Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia.*Dr. Eapen and Dr. Ridley are listed as co-first authors
Background: Food allergy is a disease with a diverse and variable natural history, and some patients may react to two or more food antigens. This study aimed to classify and characterize the long-term prognosis of infantile-onset, immediate-type food allergies in children, focusing on three major antigens in Japan: egg, milk, and wheat. Methods: All children visited to our hospital with food allergies, including suspected cases, were prospectively registered in our medical database. From this database, infants who had immediate-type symptoms or were sensitized to above three antigens were included. Cox regression analysis and repeated-measures latent class analysis were performed to reveal risk factors and tolerance patterns for food allergies. Results: Of 2,830 patients registered in the database, we included 915 patients with immediate-type food allergy symptoms and 276 sensitized asymptomatic patients in this study. The number of patients with immediate-type symptoms to egg, milk, and wheat was 609, 443, and 235, respectively. The number of patients with multiple food allergies was 302. Ratios of acquiring tolerance to egg, milk, and wheat at the age of 6 years were 74%, 69%, and 75%, respectively. Latent class analysis revealed 10 classes of prognosis for food allergies, including five with multiple food allergies. The largest class was transient egg allergy alone (21.4%), and there were severe cases of persistent allergy to three major allergens (3.2%). Conclusions: This study demonstrated the prognosis of food-allergy classes in Japan, including multiple food allergies, with 10 classes with its own characteristics.
Background Household studies are crucial for understanding the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may be underestimated from PCR testing of respiratory samples alone. We aim to combine assessment of household mitigation measures; nasopharyngeal, saliva and stool PCR testing; along with mucosal and systemic SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies, to comprehensively characterise SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in households. Methods Between March and September 2020, we obtained samples from 92 participants in 26 households in Melbourne, Australia, in a 4-week period following onset of infection with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 variants. Results The secondary attack rate was 36% (24/66) when using nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) PCR positivity alone. However, when respiratory and non-respiratory samples were combined with antibody responses in blood and saliva, the secondary attack rate was 76% (50/66). SARS-CoV-2 viral load of the index case and household isolation measures were key factors that determine secondary transmission. In 27% (7/26) of households, all family members tested positive by NPS for SARS-CoV-2 and were characterised by lower respiratory Ct-values than low transmission families (Median 22.62 vs 32.91; IQR 17.06 to 28.67 vs 30.37 to 34.24). High transmission families were associated with enhanced plasma antibody responses to multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the presence of neutralising antibodies. Three distinguishing saliva SARS-CoV-2 antibody features were identified according to age (IgA1 to Spike 1, IgA1 to nucleocapsid protein (NP), suggesting that adults and children generate distinct mucosal antibody responses during the acute phase of infection. Conclusion Utilising respiratory and non-respiratory PCR testing, along with measurement of SARS-CoV-2 specific local and systemic antibodies, provides a more accurate assessment of infection within households and highlights some of the immunological differences in response between children and adults.
Background: World-wide incidence and prevalence of both asthma and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children has been increasing in past decades. Association between the two diseases has been found in some but not other studies. Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis to verify such an association, and bidirectional Mendelian randomization analysis to examine the potential cause-effect relationships. Methods: Three databases (PubMed, Embase and Web of Science) were searched from their inception to February 1, 2021. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) or odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals, were calculated. Associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms with childhood asthma and T1DM were selected based on genome-wide association studies. The outcome datasets were obtained from FinnGen study. We used the inverse variance-weighted, weighted median and MR-Egger methods to estimate causal effects. To assess robustness and horizontal pleiotropy, MR-Egger regression and MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier test was conducted. Results: In meta-analysis, childhood asthma was associated with an increased risk of T1DM (HR=1.30, 95% CI 1.05-1.61, P=0.014), whereas T1DM was not associated with the risk of asthma (HR=0.98, 95% CI 0.64-1.51, P=0.941; OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.65-1.08, P=0.168). MR analysis indicated increased genetic risk of T1DM in children with asthma (OR=1.308; 95% CI 1.030-1.661; P =0.028). Analysis using the IVW method indicated not associated between T1DM and genetic risk of asthma (OR=1.027, 95%CI 0.970-1.089, P=0.358). Conclusion: Both meta-analysis and MR study suggested that childhood asthma was a risk factor for T1DM. No epidemiological or genetic evidence for an association of T1DM with asthma incidence. Further studies could be carried out to leverage this newfound insight into better clinical and experimental research in asthma and T1DM. Further studies could be carried out to leverage this newfound insight into better clinical and experimental research in asthma and T1DM.
Severe RSV infection in infancy is associated with increased risk of recurrent wheezing in childhood. Both acute and long-term alterations in airway functions are thought to be related to inefficient anti-viral immune response. The airway epithelium, the first target of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), normally acts as an immunological barrier able to elicit an effective immune reaction but may also be programmed to directly promote a Th2 response, independently from Th2 lymphocyte involvement. Recognition of RSV transcripts and viral replication intermediates by bronchial epithelial cells brings about release of TSLP, IL-33, HMGB1 and IL-25, dubbed “alarmins”. These epithelial cell-derived proteins are particularly effective in stimulating innate lymphoid cells 2 (ILC2) to release IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. ILC2, reflect the innate counterparts of Th2 cells and, when activate, are potent promoters of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in RSV bronchiolitis and childhood wheezing/asthma. Long-term epithelial progenitors or persistent epigenetic modifications of the airway epithelium following RSV infection, may play a pathogenetic role in the short and long-term increased susceptibility to obstructive lung diseases in response to RSV in the young. Additionally, ILC2 function may be further regulated by RSV-induced changes in gut microbiota community composition that can be associated with disease severity in infants. A better understanding of the alarmin-ILC interactions in childhood might provide insights into the mechanisms characterizing these immune-mediated diseases and indicate new targets for prevention and therapeutic interventions.
We describe a case of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) to multiple CFTR modulators and piperacillin in an 8 year old female with CF. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of delayed type, T-cell mediated hypersensitivity to multiple CFTR modulators described in literature. Our findings suggest possible cross-reactivity between CFTR modulators or multiple sensitisations, which should be taken into account in similar cases.
OMALIZUMAB MAY FACILITATE DRUG DESENSITIZATION IN PATIENTS FAILING STANDARD PROTOCOLSTo the Editor,Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a common glomerular disorder in children, for which steroids are the first-line treatment. While most children with NS respond to steroid therapy, 20% of children are resistant to steroids. Some children with steroid-responsive NS develop a frequently relapsing or steroid-dependent course and experience significant side effects of steroid therapy. Alternative medications such as calcineurin inhibitors, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, are being considered for such patients with difficult-to-treat NS (1,2).Hypersensitivity reactions to monoclonal antibodies are quite limited in clinical practice, such as the release of cytokines that occur during intravenous infusion. However, IgE-mediated reactions may also occur. Life-threatening IgE-mediated reactions such as anaphylaxis lead to discontinuation of treatment or conversion to a less beneficial treatment. Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) is a therapeutic option that allows continuation of treatment with the causative drug (3). Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody. Treatment indications include severe asthma and idiopathic chronic urticaria. However, the efficacy of omalizumab has also been described in food allergy, as a bridge to oral immunotherapies, atopic dermatitis, idiopathic anaphylaxis, and mastocytosis (4). Previous studies have reported the use of omalizumab for rapid desensitization to chemotherapeutic agents (5). Here, we describe a patient with steroid-resistant NS who developed anaphylaxis on the first infusion of rituximab and subsequent type 1 hypersensitivity reactions during desensitization trials with rituximab using 12-, 16-, and 20-step protocols.A 4-year-old boy diagnosed with steroid-resistant NS and unresponsive to calcineurin inhibitors, either cyclosporine A or tacrolimus, and in their combination with mycophenolate mofetil, received rituximab. After premedication with methylprednisolone at a dose of 2 mg/kg, rituximab 375 mg/m2 was administered intravenously. During the infusion, he developed anaphylaxis (vomiting and dyspnea). The infusion was stopped and intramuscular epinephrine was administered, and a 12-step rapid desensitization protocol was planned for further infusions (Table 1). He was premedicated with H1 blockers and systemic steroids. However, the patient developed breakthrough reactions (urticaria) that required additional antihistamines at the 4th step. Infusion was resumed at a slower rate. Ten minutes after re-administration, generalized urticaria and angioedema developed. Montelukast was administered according to ENDA/EAACI recommendations for rapid desensitization in drug allergy (6). After 7 days, the protocol was modified to administer 375 mg/m2 rituximab in 16 steps with premedication (Table 2). The patient developed generalized urticaria and angioedema again at the 4th step. The next week, the desensitization protocol was designed with 375 mg/m2 rituximab in 20 steps (Table 3). Again, generalized urticaria and angioedema occurred in the 2nd step. A skin prick test was performed 3 weeks after the initial reaction. During the skin prick test, the patient developed generalized urticaria.In the absence of alternative treatment options for NS, desensitization with omalizumab treatment was suggested to prevent hypersensitivity reactions to rituksimab. Omalizumab (patient weight: 17.5 kg; total IgE:71 UI /ml; dose: 150 mg/ every 2 weeks) was added to treatment. The last omalizumab dose was administered 1 day before the following desensitization. After premedication, 375 mg/m2rituximab was administered in 20 steps. In the 5th step, the patient developed local urticaria requiring an antihistamine. The infusion was resumed and successfully completed. Under omalizumab treatment, the patient was administered 375 mg/m2 rituximab for the second time in a 20-step protocol. After the 6th dose, the interval of omalizumab treatment was changed to every 4 weeks. The rituximab dose was then increased to 750 mg/m2 at the third infusion. After premedication, the 20-step desensitization protocols were successfully applied in the following days.Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 antigen on the surface of B cells and causes elimination of B lymphocytes by complement- and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity for 6-12 months (2). Efficacy has also been demonstrated in the treatment of steroid-resistant NS (7). Rituximab is one of the most common biologic agents with infusion-related reactions. Rituximab-associated hypersensitivity reactions can be classified as infusion-related reactions, cytokine release, IgE-mediated/non-IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions, mixed reactions, type 3 and type 4 hypersensitivity reactions (8).Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody and prevents degranulation in effector cells by specifically binding to the FceRI receptor site of free IgE, causing a decrease in the level of free IgE in serum, and causing downregulation of FceRI receptors (9). Omalizumab has previously been used as a co-adjuvant in RDD along with insulin, the enzyme elosulfase alpha, chemotherapeutic agents, and aspirin (9). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial by Lang et al, desensitization was achieved after 16 weeks treatment with omalizumab. In other case reports, omalizumab treatment was generally started 7-14 days before RDD; only in one case report was the first omalizumab dose given 4 days before RDD (9). In previous studies, omalizumab dosing in allergic asthma was based on patient weight and total IgE. In our case, we administered 6 doses of omalizumab (150 mg/dose) every two weeks before desensitization and continued treatment once a month until completion of rituximab therapy. In patients with successful RDD on omalizumab, RDD steps can be reduced on subsequent infusions. Arroaberran et al. (10) presented a patient who tolerated elosulfase alpha enzyme without desensitization after omalizumab treatment.In conclusion, omalizumab may facilitate desensitization protocols and allow continuation of the preferred treatment.1Hatice Betul Gemici Karaaslan,
Several inborn errors of immunity are caused by defects in the general DNA repair machinery as exemplified by the T-B- RS-SCID condition owing to impaired resolution of programmed DNA double strands breaks introduced by RAG1/2 during V(D)J recombination. The genome instability generally associated with these conditions results in an increased propensity to develop malignancies requiring genotoxic based anti-cancer treatments. Moreover, the extent of immune deficiency often calls for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a definitive treatment, thus also demanding genotoxic based conditioning regimen prior to transplantation. In both cases, the underlying general DNA repair defects may result in catastrophic iatrogenic consequences. It is therefore of paramount importance to assess the functionality of the DNA repair apparatus prior to any genotoxic treatment when the exact molecular cause of the disease is unknown. For this purpose, two simple assays can be used on patient’s derived peripheral blood lymphocytes. 1) The PROMIDISα biomarker, based on the next generation sequencing analysis of the TCRα will highlight specific signatures of DNA repair deficiencies. 2) Direct analysis of the sensitivity of peripheral lymphocytes to ionizing radiations will formally identify patients at risk to develop toxicity towards genotoxic based treatments.
To the EditorReply to Stefano Miceli SopoFirst of all we want to thank for giving us an opportunity to reply to this correspondence (1), acknowledging the correspondence authors important point about the recommendation of introducing well-cooked, but not raw or uncooked pasteurized hen’s egg as part of complementary feeding.We agree that the evidence-base is sparse, with just two trials about cooked egg contributing to the low to moderate certainty evidence in our review (2) and guideline (3). These studies were in different populations (4, 5). We highlighted these points in the guideline, and the subgroup analysis from the Perkin study (6) was used only as supporting material, and for estimating the amount of egg that could be used. It is correct that the Natsume study included infant at higher risk due to eczema, but that was the case for both groups, and outcome was assessed by controlled challenges as described in the systematic review (2).As set out in the guideline, the process took into account expert insight weighing up benefits and harms, costs, feasibility, standard practice and patient preferences, in addition to published evidence. Weighing up all of these factors, the task force decided that the potential benefits outweighed potential harms in the case of well-cooked egg. One relatively large study found a 29% absolute decrease in the proportion of high risk infants with egg allergy at 1 year when very small amounts of egg were introduced (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.54) (4). And two trials found no adverse effects (4, 5). It is likely feasible for many families to introduce well-cooked egg as part of complementary feeding, including in baked goods. The potential benefits do not outweigh the harms for uncooked egg, so the task force did not suggest trying this approach.The task force included representatives from many countries and specialties, and followed a robust process when reviewing evidence and debating potential recommendations. As the correspondence authors note, this recommendation is in line with other key guidelines. Whilst the correspondence authors may not agree with specific recommendations, the process used to debate and vote on them was systematic and took into account perspectives from across the world, including those from organisations representing patients and their families. Furthermore, a public consultation process sought feedback prior to publication, which further reinforced consensus about this recommendation.As is the case with all guidelines, the EAACI food allergy prevention guideline provides suggestions for clinicians to consider, alongside the needs of individual patients and local contexts and customs. The guideline is not prescriptive and does not override clinical judgement ad individual circumstances. Given the lack of likely harm, the convenience of this approach and best available evidence to date, the task force stands by its suggestion that clinicians in countries where egg allergy is an issue discuss with families the potential and desire to introduce small amounts of well-cooked egg into the infant diet when appropriate as part of complementary feeding. This need not be from the beginning of complementary therapy and the amounts may be very small.The guideline suggests half of a well-cooked, small egg twice a week, which may be in the form of a hard-boiled egg, well-cooked egg pasta, bread or baked goods, for example (p. 850). There is no evidence of significant harm, and it is likely that infants in many parts of the world may be exposed to egg in their diet anyway. There is no need to avoid this to prevent egg allergy, and in the opinion of the EAACI task force, introducing it may have benefits.Susanne Halken, Professor a, ProfessorAntonella Maria Muraro b, ProfessorGraham Roberts c, ProfessorDebra de Silva d, ProfessorOn behalf of On behalf of the EAACI Prevention Guideline Task Forcea Hans Christian Andersen Children’s Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Odense, DenmarkbDepartment of Women and Child Health, Food Allergy Referral Centre Veneto Region, Padua University Hospital, Padua, Italyc Clinical and Experimental Sciences and Human Development in Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK. The David Hide Asthma and Allergy Research Centre, St Mary’s Hospital, Newport, UKdThe Evidence Centre Ltd, London, UKReferencesStefano Miceli Sopo, Dario Sinatti, Francesco Mastellone, Giulia Bersani, Mariannita Gelsomino. Comment on Halken et al. Pediatr Allergy Immunol . 2022de Silva D, Halken S, Singh C, et al. Preventing food allergy in infancy and childhood: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Pediatr Allergy Immunol . 2020;31(7):813-826Halken S, Muraro A, de Silva D, et al. EAACI guideline: Preventing the development of food allergy in infants and young children (2020 update). Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2021;32(5):843-858.Natsume O, Kabashima S, Nakazato J, et al. Two-step egg introduction for prevention of egg allergy in high-risk infants with eczema (PETIT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 92 2017;389(10066):276-286.Perkin MR, Logan K, Tseng A, et al. Randomized trial of introduction of allergenic foods in breast-fed infants. N Engl J Med. 2016;374(18):1733-1743.Perkin MR, Logan K, Bahnson HT, et al. Efficacy of the enquiring About Tolerance (EAT) study among infants at high risk of developing food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019;144(6):1606-1614.
Threshold and safe ingestion dose among infants sensitized to hen’s eggMasatoshi Mitomori,a Noriyuki Yanagida,aMakoto Nishino,a Kyohei Takahashi,aKen-ichi Nagakura,a Kiyotake Ogura,aMari Takei,b Sakura Sato,b Motohiro EbisawabaDepartment of Pediatrics, National Hospital Organization, Sagamihara National Hospital, Kanagawa, JapanbClinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology, National Hospital Organization, Sagamihara National Hospital, Kanagawa, JapanRunning title: Threshold and safe ingestion dose of egg