Introduction: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by lung injury with varying degrees of disrupted alveolarization, vascular remodeling, inflammatory cell proliferation, and pulmonary edema. Diuretics are often used to ameliorate the symptoms or progression of BPD. Our primary objective was to use lung ultrasound (LUS) to determine if diuretics decrease pulmonary edema in infants with BPD. The secondary objective was to assess changes in respiratory support during the first week after initiation of diuretics. Methods: Premature infants requiring non-invasive respiratory support and starting diuretic therapy for evolving BPD were compared with a similar group of infants not receiving diuretics (control). For the diuretic group, LUS exams were performed before and on days 1, 3 and 6 after initiation of treatment. For the control group, LUS was performed at equivalent time points. A composite pulmonary edema severity (PES) score of 0 to 5 was calculated based on the total number of B-lines in 6 scanned areas. Respiratory support parameters (FiO2, nasal cannula flow or CPAP) were also recorded. Results: Infants in the diuretic (n=28) and control (n=23) groups were recruited at median corrected gestational ages of 34.2 (33.3-35.9) and 34.0 (33.4-36.3) weeks, respectively ( p=0.82). PES scores, FiO2, and respiratory flow support decreased significantly from day 0 to 6 ( p<.0001, p=0.001, and p=0.01, respectively) in the diuretic group, but not in the control group. Conclusion: Diuretic use is associated with decreased pulmonary edema and improved oxygenation in infants with BPD during the first week of treatment.
Although COP is idiopathic by definition, it is important to investigate each diagnosed case for potential causes, such as iatrogenic from radiation or known causative medications , connective tissue diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, malignancies, history of lung transplant or bone marrow graft. OP may present weeks to months before other signs of connective tissue disorders and therefore the patient should undergo serologic testing for these diseases.  In the case presented, the specific etiology was unyielding and so remains cryptogenic in nature. This patient’s symptoms quickly improved following the use of steroids and tolerated tapering off completely without relapse one year out from initial diagnosis.
Background: Whether Lung ultrasound (LUS) can be used for pathogenic diagnosis is still controversial. This was conducted to test the accuracy and reliability of ultrasound in the diagnosis of pneumonia and to clarify whether ultrasound has diagnostic value for the etiology. Methods: A total of 135 neonatal pneumonia patients with an identified pathogen and 50 newborns with normal lungs in the newborn intensive care unit of 10 tertiary hospitals in China were enrolled. The study ran from November 2020 to December 2021. The infants were divided into various groups according to pathogens, the time of infection, the gestational age, the severity of the disease. The distribution of pleural line abnormalities, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary consolidation, as well as the incidence of air bronchogram and pleural effusion based on LUS, were compared between the above groups and between the pneumonia and healthy control groups. Results: There were significant differences in pulmonary consolidation. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of severe pneumonia based on the extent of pulmonary consolidation were 83.3% and 85.2%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the identification of mild or severe pneumonia based on the distribution of pulmonary consolidation was 0.776. Conclusion: Lung ultrasound has good performance in differentiating the severity of neonatal pneumonia, but cannot be used for pathogenic diagnosis.
This case illustrates another promising example of the recent advances within pediatric interventional bronchoscopy. As innovative medical therapies continue to make their way into the pediatric realm (e.g. a 1.1-mm flexible cryoprobe has been recently developed by Erbe), opportunities for novel approaches and techniques will continue to present themselves.
Objective: This systematic review aimed to systematize different designs of exercise-based pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) for children with asthma and explore which designs are optimal. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science Core Collection and MEDLINE were searched up until April 01, 2021, which was conducted for any relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of exercise-based PR in childhood asthma. Language is limited to English. Network meta-analyses and standard meta-analyses were performed using STATA (version 16.0), quality analyses were performed using RevMan (version 5.3). Results: A total of 24 RCTs involving 1031 patients were included. 14 studies were endurance training, which was the most commonly used form of exercise, and 7 studies rehabilitation sites were conducted in hospitals. A network meta-analysis showed that compared with other forms of exercise, interval training significantly improved the PAQLQ (Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire), including activity scores [MD=3.02, 95% CI (1.74,4.30)], symptom scores [MD=2.68, 95% CI (2.04,3.32)], emotional scores [MD=2.47, 95% CI (0.91,4.03)], and total scores [MD=2.68, 95% CI (1.79,3.57)]. Interval training [MD=188.97, 95% CI (-59.27, 437.21)] also had a more significant effect on the 6MWT (6-minute walk test). No adverse events were found in this study. Exercise training had no significant effect on FEV 1(the forced expiratory volume at 1s to predicted value ratio) [WMD=0.59, 95% CI (-2.00, 3.19)], however, the combined of endurance training and respiratory training was found to significantly improve both FVC (the forced vital capacity to predicted value ratio) [MD=5.37, 95% CI (0.07,10.67)] and FEF25-75% (the forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity ratio) [WMD=11.31, 95% CI (2.13, 20.48)]. Conclusions: Exercise-based PR is a safe and effective for childhood asthma. Interval training may be a core component of improving quality of life and exercise capacity in childhood asthma, the combination of respiratory training and endurance training has significant effects on lung function.This result should be viewed with caution, and high-quality RCTs are still needed to confirm its clinical efficacy,
This study aimed to investigate epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features of children with COVID-19 to identify predictors for pulmonary involvement. We conducted a retrospective, single-center study of pediatric COVID-19 at a tertiary care hospital in Turkey between December 2020 and June 2021. A total of 126 children (70 males, 55.6%) were examined during the study period. Their mean age was 74.73 ± 81.11 months (range, 1–216 months). The most frequent COVID-19 symptoms were fever (65.9%), cough (52.4%), and shortness of breath (18.3%). Ten patients required noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Sixty-nine patients (54.8%) had pneumonia. Longer duration of fever and the presence of cough were significantly associated with pulmonary involvement. In children with pneumonia, the C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and viral load were significantly higher and lymphocyte and thrombocyte counts were significantly lower than in children without pneumonia. The cutoff viral load, CRP, and procalcitonin values for predicting pulmonary involvement were 26.5 cycle threshold (Ct; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–0.74; sensitivity, 0.65; specificity, 0.56; area under curve [AUC]: 0.647, p = 0.005), 7.85 mg/L (95% CI, 0.56–0.75; sensitivity, 0.66; specificity, 0.64; AUC = 0.656; p = 0.003) and 0.105 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.52–0.72; sensitivity, 0.55; specificity, 0.58; AUC = 0.626; p = 0.02), respectively. High CRP, procalcitonin levels, ESR, and viral load and low lymphocyte and thrombocyte counts can predict pulmonary involvement in children with COVID-19, so better management may be provided for good prognosis.
Background: Inappropriate humidification of inspired gas during mechanical ventilation can impair lung development in extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants. Humidification depends on multiple factors, such as the heater-humidifier device used, type of ventilation, and environmental factors. Few studies have examined inspired gas humidification in these infants, especially during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). Our objective was to compare humidity during HFOV and intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV), in vitro and in vivo. Methods: In-vitro and in-vivo studies used the same ventilator during both HFOV and IPPV. The bench study used a neonatal test lung and 2 heater-humidifiers with their specific circuits; the in-vivo study prospectively included preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation. Results: On bench testing, mean absolute (AH) and relative (RH) humidity values were significantly lower during HFOV than IPPV (RH = 79.4% ± 8.1% vs 89.0% ± 6.2%, P<0.001). Regardless of the ventilatory mode, mean relative humidity significantly differed between the 2 heater-humidifiers (89.6% ± 6.7% vs 78.7% ± 6.8%, P=0.003). The in-vivo study included 10 neonates (mean ± SD gestational age: 25.7 ± 0.9 weeks and birth weight: 624.4 ± 96.1 g). Mean relative humidity during HFOV was significantly lower than during IPPV (74.6% ± 5.7% vs 83.0 ± 6.7%, P=0.004). Conclusion: Relative humidity was significantly lower during HFOV than IPPV, both in vitro and in vivo. The type of heater-humidifier also influenced humidification. More systematic measurements of humidity of inspired gas, especially during HFOV, should be considered to optimize humidification and consequently lung protection in ELBW infants.
We describe a case of unilateral phrenic nerve palsy due to SARS-COV-2 in a young child, which led to prolonged and complicated ventilation. The child was treated with methylprednisolone and IVIG, which led to a complete recovery of phrenic function. Temporary involvement of the phrenic nerve should be considered in children infected with SARS-COV-2 requiring prolonged ventilation. The phrenic nerve palsy is postulated to be due to peripheral nerve involvement by SARS-CoV-2. In South Africa, children under 12 years of age are not prioritized for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. This case re-iterates that even though SARS-CoV-2 disease is mild in the vast majority of children there are more severe presentations which, in low- or middle-income countries, might even go unrecognized.
To the editor: We present a 13-year-old boy with mild persistent asthma and obstructive sleep apnea who initially presented with fever, dyspnea, cough, night sweats and myalgia for 4 days. He reported having an intermittent “hacking cough” for years. Physical examination was significant for diffuse crackles in the right lung base, decreased breath sounds and mild digital clubbing. Initial chest x-ray (CXR) revealed right middle lobe (RML) and right lower lobe (RLL) opacities with right pleural effusion interpreted and treated as community acquired pneumonia. He was followed as an outpatient by his pediatrician and referred to our pediatric pulmonology clinic months later for persistent RLL atelectasis and chronic cough. He was well appearing with similar physical examination findings as described earlier. Laboratory tests including sweat chloride, cystic fibrosis genetic panel, immunoglobulin levels, complement, pneumococcal and tetanus titers were normal.
CorrespondenceTitle: An oversight regarding the Club cell?To the Editor,I was surprised to a see a title including the outdated term “Clara Cell” protein, in reference to CC16, in the title and body of the article by Rallis et al recently published in Pediatric Pulmonology (1). It appears that there needs to be an ongoing reminder that due to the association of Dr. Max Clara with the Third Reich and his unethical medical research practices which lead to the identification of this cell type (2-4) that his name was removed in 2013.In 2012, Editorial boards of American Thoracic Society, the European Respiratory Society and the American College of Chest Physicians, based on recommendations from an expert panel assembled by the Forum of International Respiratory Societies, agreed to convert to use of the terms “club cell (Clara)” and “club cell secretory protein (Clara), and after January 1, 2013, completely transitioning out the use of the (Clara) eponym.In our day, where cancel culture is so predominant, questions have been raised about what lessons are lost when history is erased. Assuming an oversight was made by the authors, editors and reviewers in not utilizing the now accepted terms “Club cell secretory protein” or bronchiolar exocrine cells, it would only be acceptable to mention the prior term in the setting of an asterisked description explaining the context and involvement of concentration camp prisoners and their association with the prior eponym, for educational purposes.Rallis D, Baltogianni M, Dermitzaki N, Balomenou F, Papastergiou E, Maragoudaki E, Tsabouri S, Makis A, Giapros V. Clara cell protein expression amongst infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2022 Mar 18.Woywodt A, Lefrak S, Matteson E. Tainted eponyms in medicine: the ”Clara” cell joins the list. Eur Respir J. 2010 Oct;36(4):706-8Winkelmann A, Noack T. The Clara cell: a ”Third Reich eponym”? Eur Respir J. 2010 Oct;36(4):722-7.Irwin RS, Augustyn N, French CT, Rice J, Tedeschi V, Welch SJ; Editorial Leadership Team. Spread the word about the journal in 2013: from citation manipulation to invalidation of patient-reported outcomes measures to renaming the Clara cell to new journal features. Chest. 2013 Jan;143(1):1-4.
Background: Studies report associations between maternal mental health and adverse respiratory outcomes in children; however, the impact of timing and duration of maternal distress remains understudied. We sought to longitudinally examine associations between maternal depression and childhood asthma and wheeze, and explore sex differences. Methods: Maternal depression (n=605) were assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale questionnaire, dichotomized at a clinically relevant cutoff (>12) a) during pregnancy, b) postpartum, and c) postpartum and subsequent time points postnatally (recurrent depression). Report of wheeze in the past 12 months (current wheeze) and asthma were obtained using a validated survey at 48 and 72 months. Associations were analyzed using a modified Poisson regression adjusted for covariates, and in interaction models. Results: Both postpartum and recurrent depression were associated with higher risk of current wheeze (RR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.92; RR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.52, 3.78) and asthma at 48 months (RR: 2.79, 95% CI: 1.13, 6.87; RR: 3.14, 95% CI: 1.26, 7.84). In interaction analyses, associations were stronger in females. Postpartum and recurrent depression were associated with higher risk of current wheeze at 48 months in females (RR: 3.06, 95% CI: 1.48, 6.32; RR: 4.02, 95% CI: 1.91, 8.46) when compared to males RR: 1.47, 95% CI: 0.84, 2.56; RR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.34). Conclusions: Postpartum and recurrent depression were associated with higher risk of wheeze and asthma in children, and associations were stronger in females than males. Understanding the temporal- and sex-specific effects of maternal depression may better inform prevention strategies.
To our knowledge this is the first published case of NP associated with COVID-19 in an individual with CF and the first associated with Nocardia infection. We suspect the combination of cystic fibrosis, COVID-19 pneumonitis and co-infection with Nocardia farcinia caused this young man’s NP and ultimately his untimely death. We hope this case will highlight individuals with CF of all ages are at risk of severe COVID-19 infection.
Foreign body aspiration is rare in children below 6 months of age. Very young children presenting with stridor, atypical croup presentation, and not responding accordingly, subglottic foreign body aspiration should be considered. These may not always be visible with bedside flexible endoscopy and may need investigation under anesthesia. We report 2 cases of devil's thorn aspiration in young infants. These children were left on the floor to play and devils thorn may be a danger lurking as the they have been deposited unknowingly by the shoes people wear and pick up by these young infants.
Background: Heterozygote carriers of potentially pathogenic variants in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR) gene have increased asthma risk. However, the frequency and impact of CFTR variation among individuals with asthma is unknown. Objective: To determine whether potentially pathogenic CFTR variants associate with disease severity and whether individuals with two potentially pathogenic variants exist in a severe asthma-enriched cohort . Methods: We analyzed sequencing data spanning a 190.5Kb region of CFTR in participants from the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP1-3). Potentially pathogenic, rare CFTR variants (frequency<0.05) were classified as CF-causing or of varying clinical consequences (VVCC) (CFTR2.org). Regression-based models tested for association between CFTR genotypes (0-2 potentially pathogenic variants) and severity outcomes. Results: Of 1401 participants, 9.5% (134) had one potentially pathogenic variant, occurring more frequently in non-Hispanic white (NHW, 10.1% [84 of 831]) compared to African American individuals (AA, 5.2% [22 of 426]). We found ≥2 potentially pathogenic CFTR variants in 1.4% (19); 0.5% (4) of NHW and 2.8% (12) of AA. Potentially pathogenic CFTR variant genotypes (≥1 or ≥2 variants) were not cumulatively associated with lung function or exacerbations. In NHW, we found three F508del compound heterozygotes with F508del and a VVCC (two 5T;TG12[c.1210-11T>G] and one Arg1070Trp) and a homozygote for the VVCC, 5T;TG12. Conclusions: We found potentially pathogenic CFTR variants within a severe asthma-enriched cohort , including three compound heterozygote genotypes variably associated with CF in NHW individuals. These findings provide the rationale for CFTR sequencing and phenotyping of CF-related traits in individuals with severe asthma.
The loss of function of the FLNA gene may result in impairment of the filamin A protein. Of the many clinical syndromes, this condition may produce lung disease. This usually presents itself and is diagnosed in the infant/toddler age group that may mimic broncho-pulmonary-dysplasia. It is part of the entities included in Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease (chILD) group of disorders. We are reporting on a patient that was diagnosed at eleven years of age. This case provides a unique insight into the long-term course of lung disease in this illness and broadens our understanding of the spectrum of its presentation. Although the patient had symptoms very early in life, the diagnosis may not have been entertained because of the rarity of the disorder, its atypical presentation, and discontinuous care due to parents moving to different cities for reasons of employment. Her initial presentation to our institution was for pneumonia. Due to the highly unusual chest x-ray images, asthenia, and early clubbing, an extensive work up was undertaken that included further imaging and a lung biopsy. The final diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of FLNA LOF gene mutation.
This study investigated whether Elexacaftor-Tezacaftor-Ivacaftor (Kaftrio ®), a cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator, could improve exercise capacity in adolescents with CF. After six weeks treatment, Kaftrio ® improved both maximal and submaximal indices of aerobic fitness. Improvements were independent of changes in ventilatory function during exercise and physical activity. Interestingly, pulmonary oxygen uptake per unit of power output was higher in two, out of three, cases who presented with more severe CF lung disease. These findings suggest improved O 2 extraction and/or consumption in the exercising muscle and demonstrate, for the first time, that short-term treatment with Kaftrio ® might improve aerobic fitness in people with CF, especially in those with more severe lung disease and deconditioning.