Over the course of time, new developments associated with embryogenesis of the murine heart have served to clarify the developmental processes observed in the human heart. This evidence allows for creation of a developmental framework for many congenital cardiac defects. Here, we aim to solidify the framework related to the categorization of both solitary and multiple ventricular septal defects. Mice having genetic perturbation of the Furin enzyme have demonstrated perimembranous and juxta-arterial ventricular septal defects, permitting the inference to be made that these defects can co-exist with defects occurring within the apical muscular septum. Based on developmental evidence, furthermore, all interventricular communications can be placed into one of three groups, namely, those which are perimembranous, juxta-arterial, and muscular. All of the defects are described based on their borders as seen from the morphologically right ventricle. Our focus here will be on those defects within the muscular ventricular septum, recognizing that such defects can co-exist with those that are perimembranous. We discuss the differentiation of multiple discrete defects from those referred to as the ‘Swiss cheese’ variant. As we show, appropriate surgical management requires understanding of the specific terminology, as the surgical approach may differ depending on the combination of the individual defects. Data from the Society for Thoracic Surgeons revealed that both mortality and morbidity were increased in the setting of multiple as opposed to solitary ventricular septal defects.
Background and Aim: We showed in our anatomical review, ventricular septal defects existing as multiple entities can be considered in terms of three major subsets. We address here the diagnostic challenges, associated anomalies, the role and techniques of surgical instead of interventional closure, and the outcomes. including reinterventions, for each subset. Methods: We reviewed 80 published investigations, noting radiographic findings, and the results of clinical imaging elucidating the location, number, size of septal defects, and associated anomalies, and the effect of severe pulmonary hypertension. Results: Overall, perioperative mortality for treatment of residual multiple defects has been cited to be between zero and 14.2%, with morbidity estimated between 6% to 13%. Perioperative mortality is twice as high for perimembranous compared to muscular defects, with need for reoperation is over four times higher. Perventricular hybrid approaches are useful for closure of high anterior or apical defects. Overall, results have been unsatisfactory. Pooled data reveals incidences between 2.8% and 45% for device-related adverse events. Currently, however, outcomes cannot be assessed on the basis of the different anatomical sub-sets. Conclusions: We have addressed the approaches, and the results, of therapeutic treatment in terms of co-existing discrete defects, the Swiss-cheese septum, and the arrangement in which a solitary apical muscular defect gives the impression of multiple defects when viewed from the right ventricular aspect. Treatment should vary according to the specific combination of defects.
Background Since the introduction of the E-Vita Open NEO aortic prosthesis in 2020, several incidences of post-anastomotic oozing from the polyester portion of the graft have emerged. The use of BioGlue to prime E-Vita Open NEO to prevent this has been suggested as a way to mitigate this worrying complication. We investigate the extent of graft oozing in E-Vita Open NEO and evaluate the use of BioGlue in preventing oozing, both experimentally and in terms of potential clinical complications. Methods and materials E-Vita Open NEO (in straight and branched configurations) was implanted in a perfused model. The distal stent-graft and side branches were clamped, and the graft pressurised with blood to 120 mmHg. The volume of blood (ml) oozing from the graft within 60 seconds was measured. Non-pressurised grafts were coated with BioGlue up to a thickness 1-, 2-, and 3 mm, and the volume (mm3) of BioGlue required to do so was recorded. Results Within 60 seconds, 250.0 ml of blood oozed from the grafts tested. 43.694 mm3, 87.389 mm3, and 174.778 mm3 of BioGlue was required to coat the device with 1-, 2-, and 3 mm of BioGlue. Conclusion Graft oozing from E-Vita Open NEO represents an omnipresent and worrying risk. The use of BioGlue herein is likely associated with several adverse consequences, which are an additional risk on top of that posed by graft oozing. These risks call into question the suitability of E-Vita Open NEO, especially when compared to alternative devices not affected by oozing.
Deferring non-emergent cardiac surgery became the strategy of choice for several international healthcare systems afflicted by high case burdens of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19) in order to both conserve valuable healthcare resources and protect patients from possible exposure. Missing from the available dataset to help guide policy development has been a clear understanding of the extent to which COVID-19 infection modulates cardiac surgery outcomes. In their investigation, Bonalumi and colleagues uncovered an inpatient COVID-19 positivity rate of almost 10 times higher than that of the general Italian population, as well as a mortality rate over 20 times higher amongst cardiac surgery patients with perioperative COVID-19 infection compared to those COVID-negative. While the summation of available evidence points to the serious consideration cardiac surgeons must give to delaying surgeries during the COVID-19 pandemic, recognition must be given to the risks that postponing cardiac surgery may have on patient outcomes. Emerging data is beginning to demonstrate the efficacy of vaccination in preventing postoperative COVID-19 infection and morbidity.
Bleeding Control Strategies In Coronary Artery Bypass SurgeryFatih Avni Bayraktara MD, Mehmet Senel Bademcia MD, Cemal Kocaaslana MD, Ahmet Oztekina MD, and Ebuzer AydinaMD.a Istanbul Medeniyet University, Medicine Faculty, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Istanbul, TurkeyCorresponding Author: Fatih Avni Bayraktar, M.D, Assist.Prof.Post Publication Corresponding Author: Fatih Avni Bayraktar,M.D, Assist.Prof.Istanbul Medeniyet University Medicine Faculty, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery.Address: Dr. Erkin St. No:12 Kadikoy, Istanbul, 34722, Turkey.Mail address: firstname.lastname@example.orgDear Editor;We read with interest the article entitled “Factors associated with excessive bleeding following elective on‐pump coronary artery bypass grafting” by Bastopcu et al (1).In this retrospective study, the authors focused on preoperative and operative factors affecting excessive bleeding after on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Some points in the article caught our attention. Inherited bleeding disorders need pre-planning in the preoperative and operative period of cardiac surgery (2). Were the bleeding disorders questioned, while taking the anamnesis of the included patients?Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common complications after coronary artery bypass surgery (3). Anticoagulant therapy is inevitable in patients with atrial fibrillation. Patients with anticoagulation therapy due to atrial fibrillation or any other cause is not mentioned in the text which may be associated with postoperative bleeding.And finally, when the current literature is reviewed, it is seen that the use of peroperative tranexamic acid has a reducing effect on bleeding after coronary bypass surgery. (4). In this study, did the authors use tranexamic acid? We congratulate the authors about their manuscript. We look forward to hear the authors’ opinions on these matters.Bastopcu M, Özhan A, Erdoğan SB, Kehlibar T. Factors associated with excessive bleeding following elective on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. J Card Surg . 2021;36(4):1277-1281.Bhave P, McGiffin D, Shaw J, et al. Guide to performing cardiac surgery in patients with hereditary bleeding disorders. J Card Surg . 2015;30(1):61-69.Eikelboom R, Sanjanwala R, Le ML, Yamashita MH, Arora RC. Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation After Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Ann Thorac Surg . 2021;111(2):544-554.Boer C, Meesters MI, Milojevic M, et al. Task Force on Patient Blood Management for Adult Cardiac Surgery of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) and the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesiology (EACTA). 2017 EACTS/EACTA Guidelines on patient blood management for adult cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth . 2018;32(1):88-120.
Resection or exclusion of scars following a myocardial infarction on the LAD territory started even before the beginning of the modern era of cardiac surgery. Many techniques were developed, but there is still confusion on who did what. The original techniques underwent modifications that brought to a variety of apparently new procedures that, however, were only a “revisitation” of what described before. In some case old techniques were reproposed and renamed, without giving credit to the surgeon that was the original designer. Herein we try to describe which are the seminal procedures and some of the most important modifications, respecting however the merit of who first communicated the procedure to the scientific world.
One of the surgical options available for ischemic mitral regurgitation is mitral valve repair but is limited by recurrent regurgitation as it is experienced by a significant percent of patients and has a negative impact on patient outcomes. Efforts to model and identify predictors of recurrent MR rely on complicated echocardiographic and clinical measurements that are subjective and not routinely collected. Kachroo et. al. approached this problem in a unique way by using the STS database and Machine Learning to develop models that predict recurrent MR or death at one year. The STS database contains many routinely collected demographic and clinical parameters but requires a methodology, such as Machine Learning, that will accommodate collinearity and the unknown significance of many predictors. Kachroo et. al. developed three good Machine Learning models with AUC 0.72-0.75. Data- driven selection of important predictors showed that three revascularization targets, peripheral vascular disease and use of beta blockers are most predictive of recurrent mitral regurgitation. We applaud the authors in pioneering a novel methodology and paving the way for a bright future in Machine Learning which includes integrating medical imaging, waveform, and genomic data to practice personalized medicine for our patients.
In the study “Long-term outcomes following surgical repair of coronary artery fistula in adults”, Wada and associates, retrospectively evaluated 13 consecutive patients that underwent surgical repair of CAF No deaths, significant ST-T changes or CAF-related events were reported in a follow-up period of 66.2 months, and 1 patient showed poor contrast RCA#2 on postoperative coronary CT with a myocardial scintigraphy showing no significant change compared to the preoperative state Coronary artery fistulas (CAF) are rare congenital or acquired malformations in the connection of the coronary vessels, first described by Krause in 1865 (2). They can be classified as coronary-cameral fistulas, which connect coronary arteries with any of the heart chambers, or coronary artery malformations, which connect coronary arteries with systemic or pulmonary vessels. Congenital CAFs are normally a result of abnormal embryological development, acquired CAFs are commonly a result of cardiac traumatic injuries, and iatrogenic CAFs are usually a result of interventional cardiac procedures. This condition is still highly undiagnosed, as around 75% of incidentally-found CAFs are small and clinically silent, but it is estimated that CAFs are present in about 0.9% of the general population In our experience, we have a CAF incidence of 0.05% in 10,000 cardiac surgeries, which have demonstrated beneficial outcomes of the surgical repair of CAFs in adults . Authors of this article must be congratulated for the successful development of the study and for the contributions to the literature on this rare condition
Background: The optimal treatment of high-risk PE with cardiac arrest is still controversial although various treatment approaches have been developed and improved. Here, we present a serie of patients with high-risk PE showing hemodynamic collapse, who were successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as an adjunct to EKOS™ acoustic pulse thrombolysis. Method: From April 2016 to June 2020, 29 patients with high-risk PE with cardiac arrest were retrospectively included. The mean age was 55.3 ± 9.2 years. Twelve (41.3%) patients were female. All patients had cardiac arrest, either as an initial presentation or in-hospital after the presentation. All patients exhibited acute symptoms, computed tomography (CT) evidence of large thrombus burden, and severe right ventricular dysfunction. Primary outcome was all-cause 30-day mortality. Results: Twenty-two patients survived to hospital discharge, with a mean ICU stay of 9.9 ± 1.6 days (range, 7 to 22 days) and mean length of hospital stay of 23.7 ± 8.5 days (range, 11 to 44 days). Six patients died from refractory shock. Ninety-day mortality was 24.1% (7/29). The Mean ECMO duration was 3.5 ± 1.1 days and the mean RV/LV ratio decreased from 1.31 ± 0.17 to 0.92 ± 0.11 in patients who survived to discharge. The mean tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) dose for survivor patients was 20.5 ± 1.6 mg. Conclusion: Patients with high-risk pulmonary embolism who suffer a cardiac arrest have high morbidity and mortality. APT complemented by ECMO could be a successful treatment option for patients who have high-risk PE with circulatory collapse.
The use of the Radial Artery (RA) as a conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been steadily increasing since the early 1990’s and based on the most recent data may well become the standard of care for patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) requiring multiple arterial grafts. The TRA approach for cardiac catherization has also increased steadily in use by interventional cardiologists owing to its reduction in bleeding and vascular complications when compared with the femoral approach and is now considered the preferred arterial access. However, prior use of transradial access (TRA) for cardiac catherization is a contra-indication for the use of the RA for CABG because of high rates of structural damage to the vascular wall and potential for graft failure. In this issue of the Journal of Cardiac Surgery Clarke et al. examine the RA of two patients who had TRA for coronary angiography 8 and 12 years prior and note that both patients had chronic injury with dissection and obstruction of the lumen secondary to fibrosis suggesting that TRA causes long-term and irreversible damage rendering them unsuitable as conduits for CABG.
Object: Investigate the value of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in perimembranous ventricular septal defect (PmVSD) closure via a left parasternal ultra‐minimal trans intercostal incision in children. Methods: From January 2015 and December 2020, 212 children with PmVSD were performed device occlusion via an ultraminimal intercostal incision. TEE is used throughout the perioperative period, including TEE assessment, TEE-guided localization of the puncture site, TEE guidance. All patients were followed up using transthoracic echocardiography for over 6 months. Results: A total of 207 cases successfully occluded, the successful rate was 97. 64%. one hundred and forty-five patients had single orifice, and 62 patients had multiple orifices in the AMS. During the operation, the surgeon readjusted the device or replaced the larger device in 17 cases. After operation, there were 19 cases of slight residual shunts, 13 cases of pericardial effusion and 4 cases of pleural effusion. And all were back to normal during the 4- month follow-up period. Mild mitral regurgitation was presented in 1 patient and remained the same during the follow-up period. No other complications were found. Conclusions: TEE was used to evaluate and determine the defect in PmVSDs with an concentric occluder via a left parasternal ultra‐minimal trans intercostal incision. TEE guidance and immediate postoperative efficacy evaluation are of great value, which can effectively guide the treatment of PmVSD occlusion.
The results of a meta-analysis are more than just the reported odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, and P value. Of equal importance is the fine print of the study which should include assessment of risk of bias, certainty in evidence, and heterogeneity in the individual point estimates and confidence intervals. These areas all have influence on the quality of the data in the analysis. Reading and understanding the fine print is important.
What can be seen from the case report by Verzelloni et al. has a double value, beyond the case itself. First of all, the use of platelet aggregation assessment tests, such as TEG-PM, allows clinicians to verify the exact timing between the suspension of thienopyridines and the possibility of surgery without further temporal delays and is also able to favor the evolution of ischemic problems or hemodynamic instability not easily treatable. It therefore allows clinicians to optimize the bleeding / thrombosis matching. Secondly, the use of point of care methodologies for the evaluation of platelet aggregation allows us to evaluate the adequacy of the anti-aggregation, facilitating, where resistance or percentages of anti-aggregation are lower than expected, modification of the therapeutic regimen.
Title: Bicuspid Aortic Valve: Progression of Stenosis and Clinical RelevanceRunning Head: Progression of Stenosis in Bicuspid Aortic ValveAuthors: Saqib Masroor, MD, MBA, MHSUniversity of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiothoracic SurgeryMeeting Presentation: NoneDisclosure: NoneWord Count: 717
Objective: Valve-sparing root replacement is commonly used for management of aortic root aneurysms in elective setting, but its technical complexity hinders its broader adoption for acute Type-A Aortic Dissection (ATAAD). The Florida Sleeve (FS) procedure is a simplified form of valve sparing aortic root reconstruction that does not require coronary reimplantation. Here, we present our outcomes of the Florida Sleeve (FS) repair in patients with dilated roots in the setting of an ATAAD. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 24 consecutive patients (2002-2018) treated with FS procedure for ATAAD. Demographic, operative, and postoperative outcomes were queried from our institutional database. Long term follow-up was obtained from clinic visits for local patients, and with telephone and telehealth measures otherwise. Results: Mean age was 49 ± 14 years with 19 (79%) males. Marfan syndrome was present in 4 (16.7%) patients and 14 (58.3) had ≥2+ aortic insufficiency (AI). Nine (37.2%) had preoperative mal-perfusion or shock. The FS was combined with hemi-arch replacement in 15 (62.5%) patients and a zone-2 arch replacement in 9 (37.5%) patients. There were 2 (8.3%) early postoperative mortalities. Median follow-up period was 46 months (range; 0.3-146). The median survival of the entire cohort was 143.4 months. One patient (4.2%) required redo aortic valve replacement for unrelated aortic valve endocarditis at 30 months postoperatively. Conclusion: FS is simplified and reproducible valve-sparing root repair. In appropriate patients, it can be applied safely in acute Stanford type-A aortic dissection with excellent early and long-term results.