Prevalence of sensitization to molecular food allergen components in
Europe: a systematic review
Recent reports indiciate that the prevelance of food allergy is
increasing, but accurate estimates remain a challenge due to
cross-reactivity and limited use of precise diagnostic methods.
Component-resolved diagnostics (CRD), in which sensitization to
individual molecular components of whole food allergen extracts is
measured, is emerging as a promising tool for evaluation of
sensitization profiles. In this systematic review, we summarized
estimates of prevalence of sensitization to food allergen components in
the general population in Europe. We searched seven databases with no
restrictions on publication date or language. Two reviewers
independently screened the literature and appraised the risk of bias in
the included studies. From 4,776 de-duplicated records, five studies,
with low to moderate overall risk of bias, were included and narratively
synthesized. Forty-six components from 18 foods were investigated.
Overall, the prevalence of sensitization was low, particularly for major
allergens, and non-existent for 10 components (0% [95% CI 0-0.8]).
The highest prevalence was seen for PR-10 proteins, such as Cor a 1.04
(13.6% [95% CI 10.9-16.9]). There were not enough studies to
discern regional differences or perfom meta-analysis, highlighting the
need for more population-representative studies in order to elucidate
patterns of sensitization to food allergen components in Europe.