Coronary ostial aneurysm is one of the complications after aortic root replacement especially in Marfan syndrome. How to reconstruct the coronary arteries is important problems during reoperation. Herein, we report a case of coronary artery bypass grafting using radial artery to repair bilateral coronary ostial aneurysms after aortic root replacement in a patient with Marfan syndrome.
Background. Query a single institution computed tomography (CT) database to assess the prevalence of aortic arch anomalies in general adult population and their potential association with thoracic aortopathies. Methods. CT chest scan reports of patients aged 50-85 years old performed for any indication at a single health system between 2013 and 2016 were included in the analysis. Characteristics of patients with and without aortic arch anomalies were compared by t-test and Fisher exact tests. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess for independent risk factors of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Results. Of 21,336 CT scans, 603 (2.8%) described arch anomalies. Bovine arch (n=354, 58.7%) was the most common diagnosis. Patients with arch anomalies were more likely to be female (p<0.001), non-Caucasian(p<0.001), and hypertensive (p<0.001). Prevalence of thoracic aortic aneurysm in arch anomalies group was 10.8% (n=65) compared to 4.1% (n=844) in the non-arch anomaly cohort (p<0.001). The highest prevalence of thoracic aneurysm was associated with right-sided arch combined with aberrant left subclavian configuration (33%), followed by bovine arch (13%), and aberrant right subclavian artery (8.2%). On binary logistic regression, arch anomaly (OR=2.85 [2.16-3.75]), aortic valve pathology (OR 2.93 [2.31-3.73]), male sex (OR 2.38 [2.01-2.80]), and hypertension (OR 1.47 [1.25-1.73]) were significantly associated with increased risk of thoracic aneurysm disease. Conclusions. Reported prevalence of aortic arch anomalies by CT imaging in the older adult population is ~3%, with high association of thoracic aortic aneurysm (OR=2.85) incidence in this subgroup. This may warrant a more tailored surveillance strategy for aneurysm disease in this subpopulation.
Non-A non-B aortic dissections are an infrequent occurrence and represent a small proportion of aortic dissections. Treating this life-threatening medical emergency often requires surgeons to undertake some one of the most challenging surgical or endovascular cases in medicine. This literature review aims to define and classify non-A non-B dissections, describe their epidemiology as well as their pathology. This review also aims to discuss the range of surgical techniques employed in their treatment and management and to investigate the patient outcomes associated with each technique.
Invasion in cardiac surgery is maximum when cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB) is used. The period is of no consequence as all complications such as Bleeding, Cerebral. Renal , vascular and Inflammatory responses are initiated when CPB is used. The term minimally invasive is therefore most inappropriate when CPB is used irrespective of the type of operation, incision, cosmesis, and use of sophisticated technology.This editorial highlights the misuse of the term Minimally invasive cardiac surgery.
BOOK REVIEW: Technical Aspects of Modern Coronary Artery BypassRobert F Tranbaugh, MDDepartment of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NYData Availability: NAFunding: NoneConflict of Interest: NoneInternational Review Board: NAInformed Consent: NACorresponding author:Robert F Tranbaugh, MDDepartment of Cardiothoracic SurgeryWeill Cornell Medicine505 East 68th StreetNew York, NY [email protected] Count: 484After recently purging most of my reference textbooks (many from the 1970’s and 1980’s and including the big names from the “Golden Age” of cardiac surgery—Glenn, Sabiston and Kirklin), I wondered if the era of the well-recognized, authoritative textbook was over. I actually cannot remember the last textbook I purchased. While a resident at UCSF, textbooks were critically important as the library closed at midnight. I grew up with the “red book”, Dunphy and Way’s “currentSurgical Diagnosis and Treatment”. This paperback nicely covered the basics of surgery and, importantly, was readily available for residents well before Google. Primarily for sentimental reasons, I kept my 1983 edition.So, why a surgical textbook in 2021? What is the appeal, attraction and need?Gaudino’s “Technical Aspects of Modern Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting” has enormous appeal. For one, it is beautifully illustrated with very useful drawings along with attractive and detailed operative photos. At times, I felt like I was visiting the author-surgeon in his or her operating room. The world’s leading experts have provided detailed step by step technical instructions, which are clear, concise and very helpful. For cardiac surgeons considering starting a multiple arterial grafting (MAG) program, this textbook is a needed and wonderful resource.The attractions of Gaudino’s testbook are many. First, “Technical Aspects” clearly reflects Gaudino’s stellar and highly productive career as an investigator and practitioner of MAG. He has systematically addressed the details of MAG. Conduit selection, harvest and utilization are all outlined in exquisite step by step detail. Complex grafting techniques are reviewed and beautifully illustrated. I especially enjoyed Chapter 12 by Rocha and his colleagues on their nicely done essay on the proximal anastomosis, or what I consider to be “the forgotten anastomosis”. The authors review the many important technical details and critical issues impacting the patency of a bypass graft.All of the chapters are well written, beautifully illustrated, highly practical and very helpful for residents in training, for early career surgeons and for well-established cardiac surgeons interested in coronary artery bypass. Gaudino should also be commended for the addition of Chapter 23 by Fremes and Tatoulis on the management of perioperative ischemia and Chapter 24 by Lazar on optimizing medical therapy. These are incredibly important chapters on “non-technical” yet critical issues with excellent recommendations.Gaudino’s “Technical Aspects” is a clearly needed and a highly authoritative textbook which will serve as an excellent roadmap for surgeons interested in starting a MAG program. It hopefully will allow surgeons to move from the “house special” CABG (one internal mammary and veins) mentioned by Girardi in his thoughtful Foreward to more arterial grafting performed with greater confidence and commitment. “Technical Aspects” will also serve as an important resource for surgeons at all levels of training and expertise. I currently have lots of room on my near empty book shelf. “Technical Aspects” will be on my book shelf and belongs on yours!
Mitral valve (MV) repair for mitral regurgitation (MR) due to posterior leaflet (PL) prolapse is achieved nowadays with a great success rate and a good survival, similar, in certain subgroups. In this paper, Sakaguchi et al describe their results in two groups of patients with PL prolapse. Some patients underwent resection (resection group) and others chordal replacement with/out limited resection (respect group). Results were similar in terms of survival and MR recurrence. Our goal is to eliminate, as much as possible, MR when a patient with degenerative MR is operated on. Reduction of the mitral orifice and consequently an increase of the transmitral gradient is the rule. MV repair for degenerative MR provides great results, but there is not a single surgical technique. A close evaluation of the anatomical findings will allow us to choose the best strategy for the individual patient. An open mind is the most important characteristic that a surgeon should have to repair a prolapsing PL without residual regurgitation and dangerous gradients.
Large studies demonstrated that moderate or severe patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) occurs in 44.2% to 65% of patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. If there is general agreement that patients with PPM have worse outcome than patients without, it is difficult to understand how to prevent this dangerous complication. The formula used to calculate the effective orifice area (EOA) of an implanted aortic prosthesis has many weak points that produce inconsistent results using the same prosthetic valve (type and size). The observed EOA (3 to 6 months postoperatively) of a #23 biological prosthesis can range from 0.9 to 3.5 cm², making PPM prevention impossible using projected EOA, where only the mean value is reported (1.83 cm² for the same #23 biological prosthesis). An EACTS-STS-AATS Valve Labelling Task Force has been established to suggest the manufacturers to present essential information on valvular prosthesis characteristics in standardized Valve Charts. For valves used in the aortic position, Valve Charts should include a standardized PPM chart to assess the probability of PPM after implantation. This will not solve completely the conundrum of prevention, but most likely it will be a step ahead.
Anomalous Aortic Origin of Coronary Artery (AAOCA) is a rare finding, with varied presentation and symptomatology. Increasingly recognized by cardiac imaging, when found it raises questions about the appropriate approach and management. We present a case of an 11-year-old female who presented with episodes of shortness of breath, angina and syncope during exercise. Further investigation demonstrated episodes of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia on Holter and coronary angiotomography revealed that the left coronary artery had an anomalous origin from the right cusp with initial short intramural segment and significant external compression in its initial course between the aorta and the pulmonary artery. Patient was submitted to surgical correction with dissection of left coronary artery posterior to the pulmonary artery, coronary arteriotomy, roof ampliation with autologous pericardium and creation of neo-ostium in aorta. Patient had satisfactory postoperative recovery, was discharged on the fifth day post op, and remains asymptomatic after six months follow-up. Herein we present surgical video and postoperative echo and CT scan.
Background: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital heart defect and it is responsible for an increased risk of developing aortic valve and ascending aorta complications. In case of mild to moderate BAV disease in patients undergoing supracoronary ascending aorta replacement, it is unclear whether a concomitant aortic valve replacement should be performed. Methods: From June 2002 to January 2020, 75 patients with mild-to-moderate BAV regurgitation (± mild-to-moderate stenosis) who underwent isolated supracoronary ascending aorta replacement were retrospectively analyze. Clinical and echocardiographic follow-up was 100% complete (mean: 7.4±3.9 years, max 16.4). Kaplan Meier estimates were employed to analyze long-term survival. Cumulative incidence function for time to re-operation, recurrence of aortic regurgitation (AR)≥3+ and aortic stenosis (AS) greater than moderate, with death as competing risk, were computed. Results: There was no hospital mortality and no cardiac death occurred. Overall survival at 12 years was 97.4±2.5%, 95% CI [83.16-99.63]. At follow-up there were no cases of aortic root surgery whereas 3 patients underwent AV replacement. At 12 years the CIF of reoperation was 2.6±2.5%, 95% CI [0.20-11.53]. At follow up, AR 3+/4+ was present in 1 pt and AS greater than moderate in 3. At 12 years the CIF of AR>2+/4+ was 5.1±4.98% and of AS>moderate 6.9±3.8%. Conclusions: In our study mild to moderate regurgitation of a BAV did not significantly worse at least up to 10 years after isolated supracoronary ascending aorta replacement.
We report a case of cardiac hibernoma, which is a very rare type of benign lipomatous tumour. They are usually asymptomatic and therefore remain undetected or are found incidentally. When symptomatic, they vary and depend on location of heart involved. The patient had a hibernoma on right atrial wall invading the intra-atrial groove and extending over superior vena cava (SVC), causing significant symptoms of SVC obstruction and tamponade. The patient therefore underwent emergency operation, in which the tumour was resected and the right atrium was reconstructed with Bovine pericardial patch. He was discharged home well.
The importance of del nido cardioplegia solution in coronary artery bypass surgeryMehmet Senel Bademcia MD, Cemal Kocaaslana MD Fatih Avni BayraktaraMD, Ahmet Oztekina MD, Huseyin Bilal Aydina MD, and Ebuzer Aydin a MD.a Istanbul Medeniyet University, Medicine Faculty, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Istanbul, TurkeyCorresponding Author: Mehmet Senel Bademci,M.D, Assist.Prof.Post Publication Corresponding Author: Mehmet Senel Bademci,M.D, Assist.Prof.Istanbul Medeniyet University Medicine Faculty, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery.Address: Dr. Erkin St. No:12 Kadikoy, Istanbul, 34722, Turkey.Mail address: [email protected] Editor;We read with interest the article by Algarni  published entitled “Routine use of del Nido cardioplegia compared with blood cardioplegia in all types of adult cardiac surgery procedures.” Algarni KD. Routine use of del Nido cardioplegia compared with blood cardioplegia in all types of adult cardiac surgery procedures. J Card Surg. 2020;10.1111/jocs.15060In this study; Del Nido cardioplegia group has shorter aortic cross-clamp time for coronary artery by pass graft patients. But there is no sufficient data about the number of distal anastomosis between cardioplegia groups. If there is a significant difference between groups, this answer can change the aortic cross clamp times regardless of cardioplegia.We congratulate Algarni et al. for their valuable manuscript about cardioplegia solutions in coronary artery bypass surgery. We would like to hear authors’ opinion on this matter.References:1. Algarni KD. Routine use of del Nido cardioplegia compared with blood cardioplegia in all types of adult cardiac surgery procedures. J Card Surg. 2020;10.1111/jocs.15060.
Background: Despite clear clinical benefits, there is limited evidence regarding possible complications of the novel mechanical support device Impella. Aortic and mitral valve regurgitation or injury are rare but potential complications following implantation of the Impella device. Methods: To evaluate valvular complications after the Impella device implantation, we have performed a comprehensive search of literature on multiple sites on this topic. Results and Conclusion: Ten case reports and one observational retrospective study were identified, with a total number of 19 patients identified. This article aims to draw attention to potential periprocedural complications relating to the Impella, in particular iatrogenic aortic and mitral valve injuries. Moreover, we have summarized our recommendations emphasizing the need for careful management and meticulous follow-up of these patients to avoid such potentially devastating complications.
Despite great advances in surgeries, the management of patients with impaired left ventricular ejection fraction is still challenging. Furthermore, evidences on outcomes of off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) in this population are inconsistent. We conducted present study to compare the short and long-term outcomes in patients with different ejection fractions undertaken OPCAB.
Object: To compare the clinical data of sternotomy and left intercostals incision, combined with the literature, to provide the best surgical incision for committed subarterial ventricular septal defect（DCS-VSD）. Methods: From July 2016 to July 2020, a total of 117 cases of occlusion surgeries for DCSVSD, which guided by transoesophagel echocardiography(TEE) were completed, including 34 cases with sternotomy incision and 83 cases with left intercostal incision. Statistics and analysis of the operation and follow-up. Results: 115 cases successfully occluded, the successful rate was 98.29%, and 1 case failed in each group. Pericardial effusion occurred in 5 children after the drainage device was removed, and the pericardial effusion disappeared after diuretic treatment. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in operation time, occlusion time, thoracotomy time and postoperative hospital stay. All the children recovered and were discharged from the hospital, and were followed up for 2-30 months after operation. Conclusion: TEE-guided intercostal DCS-VSD occlusion is safe and effective. There is no statistical difference between two approach with the operation time, chest opening and closing time, occluder placing time, and postoperative hospital staying. At the same time, the surgical incision by intercostal incisionis smaller and the operation invasion is less, it is a surgical approach which worth to develop.
Background: Infection after cardiovascular surgery is multifactorial. We sought to determine whether the anthropometric profile influence the occurrence of infection after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: Between January 2011 and June 2016, 1,777 consecutive adult patients were submitted to isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. Mean age was 61.7 ± 9.8 years and 1,193 (67.1%) were males. Patients were divided into four groups according to the Body Mass Index (BMI) classification: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2: N=17, 0.9%), normal range (BMI 18.5 – 24.99 kg/m2: N=522, 29.4%), overweight (BMI 25 – 29.99 kg/m2: N=796, 44.8%) and obese (>30 kg/m2: N=430, 24.2%). In-hospital outcomes were compared and independent predictors of infection were obtained through multiple Poisson regression with robust variation. Results: Independent predictors of any infection morbidity were female sex (RR 1.47, P=0.002), age > 60 years (RR 1.85, P<0.0001), cardiopulmonary bypass > 120 minutes (RR 1.89, P=0.0007), preoperative myocardial infarction < 30 days (RR 1.37, P=0.01), diabetes mellitus (RR 1.59, P=0.0003), ejection fraction < 48% (RR 2.12, P<0.0001) and blood transfusion (RR 1.55, P=0.0008). Among other variables, obesity, as well as diabetes mellitus, were independent predictors of superficial and deep sternal wound infection. Conclusions: Other factors rather than the anthropometric profile are more important in determining the occurrence of any infection after CABG. However, surgical site infection has occurred more frequently in obese patients. Appropriate patient selection, control of modifiable factors and application of surgical bundles would minimize this important complication.
Background COVID‐19 is usually mild, but patients can present with pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and circulatory shock. Although the symptoms of the disease are predominantly respiratory, involvement of the cardiovascular system is common. Patients with heart failure (HF) are particularly vulnerable when suffering from COVID‐19. Aim of the Review To examine the challenges faced by healthcare organisations, and mechanical circulatory support management strategies available to patients with heart failure, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be lifesaving in patients with severe forms of ARDS, or refractory cardio-circulatory compromise. The Impella RP can provide right ventricular circulatory support for patients who develop right side ventricular failure or decompensation caused by COVID-19 complications, including pulmonary embolus. HT are reserved for only those patients with a high short-term mortality. LVAD as a bridge to transplant may be a viable strategy to get at-risk patients home quickly. Elective LVAD implantations have been reduced and only patients classified as INTERMACS profile 1 and 2 are being considered for LVAD implantation. Delayed recognition of LVAD‐related complications, misdiagnosis of COVID‐19, and impaired social and psychological well‐being for patients and families may ensue. Remote patient care with virtual or telephone contacts is becoming the norm. Conclusions HF incidence, prevalence, and undertreatment will grow as a result of new COVID-19-related heart disease. ECMO should be reserved for highly selected cases of COVID-19 with a reasonable probability of recovery. Special considerations are needed for patients with advanced HF, including those supported by durable LVADs.