Background: Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) constitutes a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft to the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, coupled with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for non-LAD lesions. This management strategy is not commonly offered to patients with complex multi-vessel disease. Our objective was to evaluate 8-year survival in patients with triple-vessel disease (TVD) treated by HCR, compared with that of concurrent matched patients managed by traditional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or multi-vessel PCI. Methods: A retrospective review was undertaken of 4805 patients with TVD who presented between January 2009 and December 2016. A cohort of 100 patients who underwent HCR were propensity-matched with patients treated by CABG or multi-vessel PCI. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality at 8 years. Results: Patients with TVD who underwent HCR had similar 8-year mortality (5.0%) as did those with CABG (4.0%) or multi-vessel PCI (9.0%). A composite end-point of death, repeat revascularization, and new myocardial infarction, was not significantly different between patient groups (HCR 21.0% vs. CABG 15.0%, p = 0.36; HCR 21.0% vs. PCI 25.0%, p = 0.60). Despite a higher baseline SYNTAX score, HCR was able to achieve a lower residual SYNTAX score than multi-vessel PCI (p = 0.001). Conclusions: In select patients with TVD, long-term survival and freedom from major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after HCR are similar to that seen after traditional CABG or multi-vessel PCI. HCR should be considered for patients with multi-vessel disease, presuming a low residual SYNTAX score can be achieved.
Background: The COVID19 pandemic gripped every nation’s healthcare system and provisions on all levels. In cardiac and aortic surgery, as it is with most specialities, elective surgeries were halted. Aims of the study: We captured reflections, contingencies, and current practices across of high-volume centres in cardiac and aortic surgery globally. We also aimed this study to assess decision on prioritization of the surgical patients, the need for personal protection equipment and choice of preoperative investigations in current dynamic and fluid climate. Methods: A validated web-based questionnaire was constructed and was circulated to the international surgeons amongst high volume cardiac and aortic surgery centres. Their intrinsic feedback on decision making, impact of the lockdown and perspectives for the future ahead us all were noted. Mixed method approach was constructed. Qualitative data analysis was introduced to signify the impact globally. Results: Overall, 23 centers from 18 countries participated in this international study. 91.7% of the respondents stopped operating on elective patients during the pandemic. Majority of the surgeons agreed that acute aortic dissection (87.1%) should be operated as emergency procedure and stable triple vessel disease (87.1%) to be considered as elective procedure. Three-fifth (60%) of the respondents relied on CT chest as a preoperative screening modality. Conclusion: In the present climate where there is paucity of evidence, this will give an interim consensus for the cardiac surgeons. With the increase in cumulative number of COVID19 patients, careful utilization of the resources regarding hospital beds and manpower is of paramount importance.
Background Stroke remains a devastating complication of cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to characterise the incidence of stroke and analyse the impact of stroke on patient outcomes and survival. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed of patients with a CT-confirmed stroke diagnosis between 01/01/2015 and 31/03/2019 at a single centre. 2:1 propensity matching was performed to identify a control population. Results Over the period 165 patients suffered a stroke (1.99%), with an incidence ranging 0.85% for CABG to 8.14% for aortic surgery. The mean age was 70.3 years and 58.8% were male. 18% had experienced a previous stroke or TIA. Compared to the comparison group, patients experiencing post-operative stroke had a significantly prolonged period of ICU admission (8.0 vs 1.1 days p<0.001) and hospital length of stay (12.94 vs 8.0 days p<0.001). Patient survival was also inferior. In-hospital mortality was almost 3 times as high (17.0% vs 5.9%; p<0.001). Longer-term survival was also inferior on Kaplan-Meier estimation (p<0.001). The 1-year and 3-year survival were 61.5% and 53.8% respectively compared to 89.4% and 86.1% for the comparison group. Conclusion Perioperative stroke is a devastating complication following cardiac surgery. Perioperative stroke is associated with significantly inferior outcomes in terms of both morbidity and mortality. Notably a 28% reduction in 1-year survival. The potential to reduce morbidity and mortality with the emergence of mechanical thrombectomy, demonstrates the need for clear links between cardiothoracic and stroke teams to support individuals affected by perioperative stroke.
Background: Acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD), is a surgical emergency often requiring intervention on the aortic root. There is much controversy regarding root management; aggressively pursuing a root replacement, versus more conservative approaches to preserve native structures. Methods: Electronic database search we performed through PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS, google scholar and Cochrane identifying studies that reported on outcomes of surgical repair of ATAAD through either root preservation or replacement. The identified articles focused on short- and long-term mortalities, and rates of re-operation on the aortic root. Results: There remains controversy on replacing or preserving aortic root in ATAAD. Current evidence supports practice of both trends following an extensive decision-making framework, with conflicting series suggesting favourable results with both procedures as the approach that best defines higher survival rates and lower perioperative complications. Yet, the decision to perform either approach remains surgeon decision and bound to the extent of the dissection and tear entries in strong correlation with status of the aortic valve and involvement of coronaries in the dissection. Conclusions: There exists much controversy regarding fate of the aortic root in ATAAD. There are conflicting studies for impact of root replacement on mortality, whilst some study’s report no significant results at all. There is strong evidence regarding risk of re-operation being greater when root is not replaced. Majority of these studies are limited by the single centred, retrospective nature of these small sample sized cohorts, further hindered by potential of treatment bias.
In secondary mitral regurgitation, the concept that the mitral valve (MV) is an innocent bystander, has been challenged by many studies in the last decades. The MV is a living structure with an intrinsic plasticity that reacts to changes in stretch or in mechanical stress activating bio-humoral mechanisms that have, as purpose, the adaptation of the valve to the new environment. If the adaptation is balanced, the leaflets increase both surface and length and the chordae tendinae lengthen: the result is a valve with different characteristics, but able to avoid or to limit the regurgitation. However, if the adaptation is unbalanced, the leaflets and the chords do not change their size, but become stiffer and rigid, with moderate or severe regurgitation. These changes are mediated mainly by a cytokine, the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), which is able to promote the changes that the MV needs to adapt to a new hemodynamic environment. In general, mild TGF-β activation facilitates leaflet growth, excessive TGF-β activation, as after a myocardial infarction, results in profibrotic changes in the leaflets, with increased thickness and stiffness. The MV is then a plastic organism, that reacts to the external stimuli, trying to maintain its physiologic integrity. This review has the goal to unveil the secret life of the MV, to understand which stimuli can trigger its plasticity and to explain why the equation “large heart=moderate/severe mitral regurgitation” and “small heart=no/mild mitral regurgitation” does not work into the clinical practice.
Reimplantation of the supra-aortic vessels can be challenging with Thoraflex Hybrid. A device modification made the vessel lengths more appropriate and the position of the neo-vessels in the chest avoided malpositioning and kinking and facilitated sternum closure; this may improve operating times as well as allowing complete and continuous cerebral trivascular perfusion and corrects positioning of the intrathoracic vessels.
Background: Although minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) has become the first choice for primary mitral regurgitation (MR) in recent years, clinical evidence in this field is yet limited. The main focus of this study was the analysis of preoperative (Pre), postoperative (Post) and 1-year follow-up (Fu) data in our series of MIMVS in order to identify factors that have an impact on the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) evolution after MIMVS. Methods: We reviewed the perioperative and 1-year follow-up data from 436 patients with primary MR (338 isolated MIMVS und 98 MIMVS combined with tricuspid valve repair) to analyzed patients baseline characteristics, the change of LV size, the postoperative evolution of LVEF and its factors, and the clinical outcomes. Results: The overall mean value of EF slightly decreased at 1-year follow-up (mean change of LVEF: -2.63±9.00%). A significant correlation was observed for PreEF und EF evolution, the higher PreEF the more pronounced decreased EF evolution (in all 436 patients; r= -0.54, p<0.001, in isolated MIMVS; r= -0.54, p<0.001, in combined MIMVS; r= -0.53, p<0.001). Statistically significant differences for negative EF evolution were evident in patients with mild or greater tricuspid valve regurgitation (TR) (in all patients; p<0.05, OR=1.64, in isolated MIMVS; p<0.01, OR=1.93, respectively). Overall clinical outcome in NYHA classification at 1 year was remarkably improved. Conclusions: Our results suggest an excellent clinical outcome at 1 year, although mean LVEF slightly declined over time. TR could be a predictor of worsened FuEF in patients undergoing MIMVS.
Background – The impact of post-operative complications on long-term survival is not well characterized. We sought to study the prevalence of post-operative complications after cardiac surgery and their impact on long-term survival. Methods – Operative survivors (n=26,221) who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (n=13054, 49.8%), valve surgery (n=8667, 33.1%) or combined CABG and valve surgery (n=4500, 17.2%) from 1993 to 2019 were included in the study. Records were reviewed for post-operative complications and long-term survival. The associations between post-operative complications and survival were assessed using a Cox-proportional model. Results – Complications occurred in 17,463 (66.6%) of 26,221 operative survivors. A total of 17 post-operative complications were analyzed. Post-operative blood product use was the commonest (n=12397, 47.3%), followed by atrial fibrillation (n=8399, 32.0%), prolonged ventilation (n=2336, 8.9%), renal failure (n=870, 3.3%), re-operation for bleeding (n=859, 3.3%) and pacemaker/ICD insertion (n=795, 3.0%). Stroke (HR 1.55, 95%CI 1.36-1.77), renal failure (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.33-1.58) anticoagulant-related events (HR 1.26, 95%CI 1.02-1.56) and pneumonia (HR 1.23, 95%CI 1.11-1.36) had the strongest impact on long-term survival. Long-term survival decreased as the number of post-operative complications increased. Conclusions – Post-operative complications after cardiac surgery significantly impact outcomes that extend beyond the post-operative period. The presence, number and type of post-operative complications adversely impact long-term survival. Stroke, renal failure, anticoagulant-related events and pneumonia are particularly associated with poor long-term survival.
Patients with aortic dissection during pregnancy and postpartum period exhibit high mortality. At present, a complete overview of aortic dissection during pregnancy and postpartum period is lacking. This systematic review includes 80 reports published from 2000-2020, comprising a total study population of 103 patients with aortic dissection. It was suggested that Stanford Type A aortic dissection is more likely to occur in the third trimester, while Stanford Type B is more likely to occur within 12 weeks postpartum. The most common risk factor was connective tissue disease, with no other known risk factors. Mode of delivery has no significant effect on the type of postpartum aortic dissection. Reduced maternal and fetal mortality was observed when patients with Stanford Type A aortic dissection occurring after 28 gestational weeks underwent aortic replacement after cesarean section. Patients with Stanford Type B aortic dissection were treated mainly with medication and/or endovascular repair. Contemporary management of patients during pregnancy and within 12 weeks postpartum requires multidisciplinary cooperation and includes serial, non-invasive imaging, biomarker testing, and genetic risk profiling for aortopathy. Early diagnosis and accurate treatment are essential to reduce maternal and fetal mortality.
Background and aim of the study: Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop a profound cytokine-mediated pro-inflammatory response. This study reports outcomes in 10 patients with COVID-19 supported on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) who were selected for the emergency use of a hemoadsorption column integrated in the ECMO circuit. Materials and Methods: Pre and post treatment, clinical data and inflammatory markers were assessed to determine the safety and feasibility of using this system, and to evaluate the clinical effect. Results: During hemoadsorption, median levels of interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, and IL-10 decreased by 54%, 86%, and 64% respectively. Reductions in other markers were observed for LDH (-49%), ferritin (-46%), D-dimer (-7%), C-reactive protein (-55%), procalcitonin (-76%) and lactate (-44%). Vasoactive-inotrope scores decreased significantly over the treatment interval (-80%). The median hospital length of stay was 53 days (36-85) and at 90-days post cannulation, survival was 90% which was similar to a group of patients without the use of hemoadsorption. Conclusions: Addition of hemoadsorption to VV-ECMO in patients with severe COVID-19 is feasible and reduces measured cytokine levels. However, in this small series, the precise impact on the overall clinical course and survival benefit still remains unknown.
Vasoplegic syndrome (VPS) is defined as systemic hypotension due to profound vasodilatation and loss of systemic vascular resistance (SVR), despite normal or increased cardiac index (CI). It occurs in 9- 44% of cardiac surgery patients after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of VPS is multifactorial involving the activation of contact, coagulation, and complement systems and the activation of leukocytes. platelets and endothelial cells resulting in an imbalance in the regulation of the vascular tone; inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS] triggered by inflammatory cytokines during CPB produces nitric oxide (NO), which increases vascular levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), resulting in vasodilation. leading to postcardiac surgery VPS. Standard treatment options for severe refractory VPS are extremely limited and include vasopressor support. latest Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines also consider that the best therapeutic management of vascular hypo- responsiveness to vasopressors could be a combination of multiple vasopressors, including norepinephrine (NE) and early prescription of vasopressin. This review will address the various definitions, risk factors, pathophysiology, potential cardiac candidates, and potential therapeutic interventions for VPS following cardiac surgery focussed on the outcome. This review did not require any ethical approval or consent from the patients.
Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the longer-term results of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) repair with or without aortic root replacement. Methods From 1999 to 2017, 142 patients with or without aortic root dilatation who underwent repair of a regurgitant BAV were included in the study. Ninety-four patients underwent isolated BAV repair (Group 1; mean age 45±14 years) and 48 patients underwent valve-sparing aortic root replacement plus BAV repair (aortic valve reimplantation – Group 2; mean age 49±13 years. Median follow-up time was 5.9 years (range 0.5-15) in Group 1 and 3 years (range 0.5-16) in Group 2, respectively. Results In-hospital mortality was 1% in group 1, and 2% in Group 2 (p=0.6). The 5- and 10-year survival was 93±2.9% and 81±5.8% in Group 1 and 96±3.1% and 96±3.1% in Group 2, respectively (p=0.31). Eleven patients of Group 1 (1.7% /patient-year) and 5 patients of Group 2 (2.2%/patient-year) underwent reoperation of the aortic valve (p=0.5). The 5- and 10-year freedom from reoperation were 93.0±2.1% and 77.1±7.1% in Group 1 and 93.0±5.0% and 76.7±9.6% in Group 2 (p=0.83), respectively. At latest follow-up only 2 patients of Group 1 and 1 patient of Group 2 had AR=2° (p=0.7). The cumulative linearized incidence of all valve-related complications (bleeding, stroke, endocarditis, reoperation) was 2.9%/patient-year in Group 1 and 4%/patient-year in Group 2, respectively (p=0.6). Conclusions Isolated BAV repair and combined aortic valve reimplantation plus BAV repair provide good clinical longer-term outcomes with relatively low reoperation rate and durable valve function.
Background: The advent of Frozen elephant trunk (FET) for reconstruction of elective and non-elective aortic arch surgery has augmented the treatment of complex aortic pathologies in a single-stage operation. To date, no studies have been focused on the prevalence and predictors of coagulopathy potentiated by FET procedure. Methods: In a systematic review, we searched databases up to June 2020 for studies reporting coagulopathy complications after FET procedure. A proportional meta-analysis was carried out using STATA software (StataCorp, TX, USA). Results: In total, 46 studies including 6313 patients were eligible. The pooled estimation of reoperation for postoperative bleeding was 7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5 to 8; I2 = 84.73%; reported by 39 studies including 4796 patients). The mean volume of transfused packed blood cells and fresh frozen plasma was 1677 ml (95% CI 1066.4-2287.6) and 1016.5 ml (95% CI 450.7-1582.3). The subgroup by stent type showed a decrease in the heterogeneity (I2 = 0.01%, I2 = 53.95%, I2 = 0.01%, and I2 = 54.41% for Thoraflex® Hybrid, E-vita®, Frozenix®, and Cronus®, respectively). The subgroup by chronicity of operation resulted in less heterogeneity among patients undergoing elective compared to non-elective operation (I2 = 29.22% versus I2 = 80.56% in non-elective). Meta-regression analysis showed that age and male gender significantly impacted on the reoperation for postoperative bleeding. Conclusions: The FET procedure for arch replacement is associated with coagulopathy and the transfusion of blood products. Male, age, and selective choice of FET use were identified as heterogeneity sources of reoperation for postoperative bleeding.
Introduction Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is implemented as a rescue therapy in COVID-19 related acute distress respiratory syndrome (ARDS) and refractory hypoxemia. Google trends (GT) is an ongoing-developing web-kit providing feedback on specific population’s interests. This study uses GT to analyze the United States (US) general population interest in ECMO as COVD-19/ARDS salvage therapy. Methods GT was used to access data searched for the term ECMO and COVID-19. The gathered information included data from March 2020 through July 2021 within US territories. Search frequency, time intervals, sub-regions, frequent topics of interest, and related searches were analyzed. Data was reported as search frequency on means, and a value of 100 represented overall peak popularity. Results The number of Google searches related to the terms ECMO and COVID-19 has surged and sustained interest over time ever since the initial reports of COVID-19 in the US, from an initial mean of 34% in March 2020 to a 100% interest by April 2020, resulting in an up-to-date overall average of 40% interest. Over time West Virginia, Gainesville, and Houston, lead the frequency of searches in sub-region, metro and city areas, respectively. Top search terms by frequency include: ECMO machine, COVID ECMO, what is ECMO, ECMO treatment and VV ECMO. Parallel to this, the related rising terms are: COVID ECMO, ECMO machine COVID, ECMO for COVID, ECMO machine coronavirus, and ECMO vs ventilator. Seemingly, medical-relevant websites fail to adequately address these for patient therapeutic education (PTE) purposes. Conclusions GT complements the understanding of interest in ECMO for COVID-19. When properly interpreted, the use of these trends can potentially improve on PTE and therapy awareness via specific medical relevant websites.
Less invasive techniques for cardiothoracic surgical procedures are designed to limit surgical trauma, but technical requirements and preoperative planning are more demanding than those for conventional sternotomy. Patient selection, interdisciplinary collaboration, and surgical skills are key factors for procedural success. Aortic valve replacement is frequently performed through an upper hemisternotomy, but the right anterior minithoracotomy represents an even less traumatic, technical advancement. Preoperative assessment of the ascending aorta in relation to the sternum is mandatory to select patients and the intercostal access site. This description of the surgical technique focuses on the specific procedural details including the obligatory planning with computed tomography, and our cannulation strategy. We also sought to define the anatomical ascending aorto-sternal relationship, as it is of utmost importance in preoperative computed tomographic planning.
A flail chest can occur when cardiopulmonary resuscitation causes extensive rib fractures. Despite successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, if the flail chest is not treated, the patient may not survive regardless of the correction of the primary condition that caused the cardiac arrest. Therefore, if flail chest persists despite proper conservative management to correct the flail chest, active surgical management is essential. We present a successful surgical treatment with pectus bar for a patient with flail chest, caused by extensive segmental rib fractures sustained during cardiopulmonary resuscitation for a massive pulmonary thromboembolism.
Severe recurrent mitral regurgitation (MR) within 1 year of mitral valve repair is usually attributed to a technical issue with the original repair procedure. However, when artificial chordae are employed to correct mitral valve prolapse, ventricular remodeling (i.e. decreased ventricular size) can lead to recurrent prolapse and valve dysfunction. To highlight this phenomena, we present 2 patients who experienced early failure after undergoing mitral valve repair with artificial chordae.
The Revivent TC™ TransCatheter Ventricular Enhancement System (BioVentrix Inc, San Ramon, CA, USA) is intended for use in heart failure with cardiac dysfunction a previous myocardial infarction. The resultant increased left ventricular systolic volume and discrete, contiguous, non-contractile (akinetic and/or dyskinetic) scar located in the antero-septal, apical (may extend laterally) region of the left ventricle (LV) lends itself to Revivent. The procedure, called Less Invasive Ventricular Enhancement (LIVE), consists of the implantation of a series of micro-anchors pairs in order to exclude the scarred myocardium, in order to reduce and reshape the LV. We present the procedure step-by-step, as team coordination between the cardiac surgeon and the interventional cardiologist is essential to ensure good procedural outcomes. This is a novel and new technique to address Heart Failure secondary to Myocardial Infarction.