A subtle aortic dissection can be challenging to detect despite the availability of multiple diagnostic modalities. Whilst rare, the inability to detect this variant of aortic dissection can lead to a dismal prognosis. We present an extremely rare case of a subtle aortic dissection with supraannular aortic root intimal tear and acute severe aortic regurgitation in a patient with a bicuspid aortic valve. Initial concerns were either aortic dissection or infective endocarditis. Despite advanced multimodality preoperative imaging, diagnosis was made intraoperatively and a Bentall procedure with a mechanical aortic valve was performed. As current data is limited, a literature review concerning subtle aortic dissection is provided.
Background: Expected beneﬁts of modified ultraﬁltration(MUF) include increased hematocrit, reduction of total body water & inﬂammatory mediators, improved left ventricular systolic function, & improved systolic blood pressure and cardiac index following cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB). This prospective randomized trial tested this hypothesis. Methods: 79 patients undergoing intracardiac repair of Tetralogy of Fallot(TOF) were randomized to MUF group(Group-M, n=39) or only conventional ultrafiltration(CUF) group(Group-C, n=40). Primary outcome was change in hematocrit. Secondary outcomes were changes in peak airway pressures, ventilatory support, blood transfusions, time to peripheral rewarming, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, inotrope score(IS) and cardiac index. Serum inflammatory markers were measured. Results: Following MUF, Group-M had higher hematocrit(44.3±0.98 g/dl) compared to Group-C(37.8±1.37g/dl),P=<0.001. Central venous pressure(mmHg) immediately following sternal closure was 9.27±3.12mmHg in Group-M & 10.52±2.2mmHg in Group-C(P=0.04). In the ICU, they were 11.52±2.20mmHg in Group-C and 10.84±2.78mmHg in Group-M(P=0.02). Time to peripheral rewarming was 6.30±3.91 hours in Group-M and 13.67±3.91hours in Group-C(P=0.06). Peak airway pressures in ICU were 17±2mmHg in Group-M & 20.55±2.97mmHg in Group-C, P<0.001. Duration of mechanical ventilation was 6.3±2.7 hours in Group-M compared to 14.7±3.5 hours in Group-C(P=0.002). IS was 11.52±2.20 in Group-C compared to 10.84±2.78 in Group-M. 8/39(20.5%) patients in Group-M had IS>10 compared to 22/40(55%) patients in Group-C(P=0.02). Serum Troponin-T and Interleukin-6 levels were lower in Group-M; TNF-α and CPK-MB were similar. ICU & hospital stay were similar. Conclusion: MUF group had higher post-operative hematocrit, decreased duration of mechanical ventilation, lower need for inotropes & lower Interleukin-6 & Troponin-T levels. MUF group had better post-operative outcomes.
Concomitant presence of acute type A dissection and coactation of aorta is rare (1). Levoatriocardinal vein has shown to be associated with left sided hypoplastic lesions as well as with normal hearts (2, 3 ). However, concurrent presence of levoatriocardinal vein with acute type A dissection, severe aortic regurgitation and Coarctation of aortic isthmus was not described. We here described a case of 20 year male presented to emergency department with acute chest pain radiating to back. On evaluation, he was found to have acute type A dissection with dilated aortic root, severe aortic regurgitation, normal mitral valve, severe coarctation of aorta and levoatriocardinal vein. Patient was managed successfully with composite valve conduit replacement of ascending aorta with ascending aortic to descending aortic graft (16mm graft) with levoatriocardinal vein ligation.
Background: Aortic cusp extension is a technique for aortic valve (AV) repairs in pediatric patients. The choice of the material used in this procedure may influence the time before reoperation is required. We aimed to assess post-operative and long-term outcomes of patients receiving either pericardial or synthetic repairs.Methods: We conducted a single center, retrospective study of pediatric patients undergoing aortic cusp extension valvuloplasty (N=38) with either autologous pericardium (n=30) or CorMatrix (n=8) between April 2009 and July 2016. Short and long-term postoperative outcomes were compared between the two groups. Freedom from reoperation was compared using Kaplan Meier analysis. Degree of aortic stenosis (AS) and aortic regurgitation (AR) were recorded at baseline, post-operatively, and at outpatient follow-up.Results: At five years after repair, freedom from reoperation was significantly lower in the CorMatrix group (12.5%) compared to the pericardium group (62.5%) (P = 0.01). For the entire cohort, there was a statistically significant decrease in the peak trans-valvar gradient between pre- and post-operative assessments with no significant change at outpatient follow-up. In the pericardium group, 28 (93%) had moderate to severe AR at baseline which improved to 11 (37%) post-operatively and increased to 21 (70%) at time of follow-up. In the biomaterial group, 8 (100%) had moderate to severe AR which improved to 3 (38%) post-operatively and increased to 7 (88%) at time of follow-up.Conclusion: In terms of durability, the traditional autologous pericardium may outperform the new CorMatrix for AV repairs using the cusp extension method.
Background: The radial artery (RA) is often utilized for diagnostic coronary angiography and percutaneous intervention. Recent high-level evidence supports RA use in preference to saphenous vein as a conduit for coronary revascularization. Aim: To demonstrate gross and histologic changes of the RA following transradial access. Methods: We present two patients who had open RA harvest for coronary bypass surgery after transradial catheterization. Results: Examination 8 years after transradial catheterization demonstrated thickened intima and dissection, and examination 12 years following transradial catheterization with percutaneous coronary intervention demonstrated chronic dissection with thickened intima and near occlusion of the lumen. Conclusion: Transradial access via the RA, even after several years, is associated significant injury, making it unusable as a conduit for surgical coronary revascularization. A RA that has been utilized for catheterization should not be considered for coronary revascularization.
Deferring non-emergent cardiac surgery became the strategy of choice for several international healthcare systems afflicted by high case burdens of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19) in order to both conserve valuable healthcare resources and protect patients from possible exposure. Missing from the available dataset to help guide policy development has been a clear understanding of the extent to which COVID-19 infection modulates cardiac surgery outcomes. In their investigation, Bonalumi and colleagues uncovered an inpatient COVID-19 positivity rate of almost 10 times higher than that of the general Italian population, as well as a mortality rate over 20 times higher amongst cardiac surgery patients with perioperative COVID-19 infection compared to those COVID-negative. While the summation of available evidence points to the serious consideration cardiac surgeons must give to delaying surgeries during the COVID-19 pandemic, recognition must be given to the risks that postponing cardiac surgery may have on patient outcomes. Emerging data is beginning to demonstrate the efficacy of vaccination in preventing postoperative COVID-19 infection and morbidity.
Background: Manouguian aortic root enlargement (ARE) has been a standard root enlargement procedure to assist in patients with a small annular size. We describe a modification to the Manouguian ARE similar to Yang et al. This approach could serve as an alternate technique for performing ARE; to date only case reports have defined this approach and no studies have evaluated its efficacy or safety. Methods: A retrospective case series was performed on patients who underwent ARE for surgical aortic valve replacement via the modified Manouguian procedure at a single institution. Thirteen patients were identified between 2015-2021, and all surgeries were performed by a single operator. Data were collected via the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database and chart review. The primary outcome was difference in valve size after the procedure. Results: The most common indication for surgery was aortic stenosis (12, 92%), with the most common etiology being degenerative calcification (7, 54%). Congenital bicuspid or uni-cuspid valves were identified in 5 (38%) patients. The majority (10, 77%) of patients received a mechanical valve. This procedure was successfully performed in all 13 of the patients. Additionally, 13 of the 13 patients (100%) were upsized to a satisfactory valve size based on pre-operative echocardiography sizing. Conclusions: The modified Manouguian aortic enlargement technique can be safely and effectively used as an aortic enlargement procedure in a broad sample of patients.
Background and Aim of the Study: Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital defect among infants born in the United States. Within the first year of life, 1 in 4 of these infants will need surgery. Only one generation removed from an overall mortality of 14%, many changes have been introduced into the field. Have these changes measurably improved outcomes? Methods: The literature search was conducted through PubMed MEDLINE and Google Scholar from inception to October 31, 2021. Ultimately, 78 publications were chosen for inclusion. Results: The outcome of overall mortality has experienced continuous improvements in the modern era of the specialty despite the performance of more technically demanding surgeries on patients with complex comorbidities. This modality does not account for case-mix, however. In turn, clinical outcomes have not been consistent from center to center. Furthermore, variation in practice between institutions has also been documented. A recurring theme in the literature is a movement towards standardization and universalization. Examples include mortality risk-stratification that has allowed direct comparison of outcomes between programs and improved definitions of morbidities which provide an enhanced framework for diagnosis and management. Conclusions: Overall mortality is now below 3%, which suggests that more patients are surviving their interventions than in any previous era in congenital cardiac surgery. Focus has transitioned from survival to improving the quality of life in the survivors by decreasing the incidence of morbidity and associated long-term effects. With the transformation towards standardization and interinstitutional collaboration, future advancements are expected.
Object: Investigate the value of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in perimembranous ventricular septal defect (PmVSD) closure via a left parasternal ultra‐minimal trans intercostal incision in children. Methods: From January 2015 and December 2020, 212 children with PmVSD were performed device occlusion via an ultraminimal intercostal incision. TEE is used throughout the perioperative period, including TEE assessment, TEE-guided localization of the puncture site, TEE guidance. All patients were followed up using transthoracic echocardiography for over 6 months. Results: A total of 207 cases successfully occluded, the successful rate was 97. 64%. one hundred and forty-five patients had single orifice, and 62 patients had multiple orifices in the AMS. During the operation, the surgeon readjusted the device or replaced the larger device in 17 cases. After operation, there were 19 cases of slight residual shunts, 13 cases of pericardial effusion and 4 cases of pleural effusion. And all were back to normal during the 4- month follow-up period. Mild mitral regurgitation was presented in 1 patient and remained the same during the follow-up period. No other complications were found. Conclusions: TEE was used to evaluate and determine the defect in PmVSDs with an concentric occluder via a left parasternal ultra‐minimal trans intercostal incision. TEE guidance and immediate postoperative efficacy evaluation are of great value, which can effectively guide the treatment of PmVSD occlusion.
Background and aim of the study Objective of this analysis was to use coronary computed tomography in patients with normal tricuspid aortic valves to perform detailed aortic root and aortic valve geometric analysis with focus on asymmetry of the three leaflets. Materials and methods We analyzed aortic valves in 70 anonymized coronary computed tomography angiograms. Mean patient age was 53 ± 11 years. All aortic valves were tricuspid, without calcifications and aortic roots were of normal dimensions. Asymmetry of the three leaflets in individual patients was assessed by calculating absolute and relative differences between the largest and the smallest of the three leaflets. Results Some degree of asymmetry was present in all analyzed valves. Absolute and relative differences for free margin length were 3.2 ± 1.4 mm and 9.3 ± 3.8%, respectively. The largest relative difference was noted in coaptation area (36.5 ± 16.5%) and the smallest in leaflet effective height (6.1 ± 4.8%). Using predefined cut-off criteria for absolute differences in leaflet dimensions, 86% of the valves were classified as asymmetric. Conclusions Equal free margin length of the three leaflets is not needed for normal tricuspid aortic valve function. Aligning the leaflet free margin length in standardized aortic valve repair may not be necessary in tricuspid aortic valve repair, whereas equalization of effective leaflet heights is.
In this article, the author provides synopses of the factors that have finally propelled healthcare education and practice to join, at times reluctantly, the overarching digital transformative process that has been swept other industries over the last few decades. The key contributors and driving forces that have energized the entry of healthcare education and practices are mentioned. The roles of major universities, large technology companies and the expanding roles of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning are described. The projected future developments are predicted to continue to be substantial, sweeping and forcing changes that are unprecedented. Thus, academicians and practitioners should be alerted to what the rapidly changing landscape is likely to become and accordingly take steps to manage and preserve their roles or risk be left behind or worse be forced out.
Background: While prior data have suggested worse outcomes in women after acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) repair when compared to men, results have been inconsistent across studies over time. This study sought to evaluate the impact of sex on short- and long-term outcomes after ATAAD repair. Methods: This was a retrospective study utilizing an institutional database of ATAAD repairs from 2007 to 2021. Patients were stratified according to sex. Kaplan-Meier survival estimation and multivariable Cox regression were performed. Supplementary analysis using propensity score matching was also performed. Results: Of the 601 patients who underwent ATAAD repair, 361 were males (60.1%) and 240 (39.9%) were females. Females were significantly older, more likely to have hypertension, and more likely to have chronic lung disease. Females were also significantly more likely than males to undergo hemiarch replacement, while males were significantly more likely than females to undergo total arch replacement and frozen elephant trunk. Operative mortality was 9.4% among males and 13.8% among females, though this was not a statistically significant difference (p=0.098). Postoperative complications were comparable between groups. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were similar for men and women, and, on multivariable Cox regression, sex was not significantly associated with long-term survival (HR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.37, p=0.986). Outcomes remained comparable after supplementary propensity score matched analysis. Conclusion: ATAAD repair can be performed with comparable short-term and long-term outcomes in both men and women.
The incidence of mechanical complications of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) needing cardiac surgery has reduced significantly in the last years due to early diagnosis and treatments. Covid-19 pandemic, however, would generate in the patients a sense of fear regarding access to the ERs so they probably underestimate symptoms such as chest pain or angina equivalents until situation does not became critical. In this way, this behaviour could create a vast pool of patients who will enter the hospital in much more critical situations and with mechanical complications of an evolving ACS needing cardiac surgery treatment.
The current Covid-19 pandemic is a significant global health threat. The outbreak has profoundly affected all healthcare professionals, including heart surgeons. To adapt to these exceptional circumstances, cardiac surgeons had to change their practice significantly. We herein discuss the challenges and broad implications of the Covid-19 pandemic from the perspective of the heart surgeons.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease which has rapidly evolved into a pandemic. Though it has affected all disciplines of medical sciences but it has some serious implications pertaining to cardiovascular sciences which have presented unique challenges in front of cardiac surgeons in particular. To flatten the curve of this pandemic, routine cardiac surgeries are being deferred indefinitely resulting in the pool of sick cardiac patients rising day by day. A different perspective is presented on this global catastrophe from the viewpoint of a cardiac surgeon.
Filippos-Paschalis R et al1 described a very interesting and unique case of ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the adrenal gland with inferior vena cava thrombosis and right atrial extension. The patient developed respiratory failure and required an urgent operation. The right adrenal gland was removed through the abdominal approach, but cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) was needed in removing the right atrium extension. The ascending aorta, superior vena cava, and the right femoral vein were cannulated for arterial and venous access, respectively. They achieved systemic hypothermia (250 C), and antegrade cold cardioplegia was administered. The aorta was cross-clamped, and another vascular clamp was placed between the left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery. The adrenal gland, the right atrium tumor, and IVC tumor thrombus were removed successfully. During the placement of the venous cannulas, the authors were very careful to avoid dislodging the tumor thrombus. The surgery was meticulously planned, and the patient had an uneventful post-operative course.Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma in the adrenal gland is a very rare tumor, but all adrenal tumors can extend into the IVC and even into the right atrium.2,3 Of note, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can have the same behavior of vascular extension into the IVC and right atrium.4 Once these tumors extend into the IVC and go into the chest, hepatic veins can be obstructed, causing Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS).5 Figure 1 showed that hepatic veins and IVC were dilated and obstructed; thus, the patient probably had BCS in this situation. Under such condition, the use of CPB is a must in order to remove the tumor from the hepatic vein and to avoid liver congestion. Also, the patient presented to the emergency department with signs and symptoms of pulmonary emboli (PE). Some of these patients can present with PE, which is a tumor thrombus that embolizes into the pulmonary arteries. In some cases the PEs also need to be removed if it is safe for the patient.6The use of CPB is indicated in cases like the one described by Filippos-Paschalis et al.1 The tumor was probably too bulky to be removed without the use of CBP; otherwise, the risk of … developing with the use of CBP may be unacceptably high. There are select cases of RCC and adrenal HCC with tumor thrombus extension which can be removed safely from the right atrium and IVC without the use of CPB.2,7,8 It is important to remember that these tumors do not cause thrombosis of the IVC, as the tumor thrombus (different from thrombosis) extends into the IVC. Tumor thrombus can cause blood thrombosis below its location,9 making it difficult to be able to place a cannula in the femoral veins.These complex extreme surgeries usually require a multidisciplinary team or a transplant surgeon who specializes in approaching these types of cases.