Climate suitability analyses based on ecological niche modeling provide a powerful tool for biological control practitioners to assess the likelihood of establishment of different candidate agents prior to their introduction in the field. These same analyses could also be performed to understand why some agents establish more easily than others. The release of three strains of Aphalara itadori (Shinji) (Hemiptera: Pysllidae), each from a different source locality in Japan, for the biological control of invasive knotweed species, Reynoutria spp. Houtt. (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae), provides an important opportunity to compare the utility of climate suitability analyses for identifying potential climate-based limitations for successful biological control introductions. Here we predict climate suitability envelopes for three target species of knotweed in Europe and two target species of knotweed in North America and compare these suitability estimates for each of these species to the source localities of each A. itadori strain. We find that source locality of one strain, the Kyushu strain, has little-to-no suitability compared to other locations in Japan based on knotweed records from Europe, supporting an earlier study based on North American Japanese knotweed records. The source locality of a second strain, the Murakami strain, was predicted to have medium-to-high suitability based on records of knotweeds from North America. In contrast, European records of R. bohemica Chrtek & Chrtková and R. sachalinensis (F. Schmidt) Nakai predicted no suitability for this locality compared to other locations in Japan, while European records for R. japonica Houtt. predicted low suitability. The source locality of the final strain, the Hokkaido strain, was predicted as having medium-to-high suitability based on knotweed records of all examined species from both North America and Europe.
The nests of ground-nesting birds rely heavily on camouflage for their survival, and predation pressures, often linked to human activity, are a major source of mortality. Numerous ground-nesting bird populations are in decline, so understanding the effects of camouflage on their nesting behaviour is of relevance to their conservation concern. Habitat three-dimensional (3D) geometry together with predator visual abilities, viewing distance, and viewing angle determine whether a nest is either visible, occluded or too far away to detect. While this link is intuitive, few studies have investigated how fine-scale geometry is likely to help defend nests from different predator guilds. We quantified nest visibility based on 3D occlusion, camouflage, and predator visual modelling in northern lapwing, Vanellus Vanellus, on different land management regimes. Lapwings selected local backgrounds that had a higher 3D complexity at a spatial scale greater than their entire clutches compared to nearby control sites. Importantly, our findings show that habitat geometry – rather than predator visual acuity restricts nest visibility to terrestrial predators, and that an open field would actually be perceived as a closed habitat to a terrestrial predator searching for nests on the ground. Taken together with lapwings’ careful nest site selection, our findings highlight the importance of considering habitat geometry for understanding the evolutionary ecology and management of conservation sites for ground-nesting birds.
Urbanization processes are taking place at a very high rate, especially in Africa, these. At the same time, a number of small mammal species, be they native of invasive, take advantage of these human-induced habitat modifications. They represent commensal communities of organisms that cause a number of inconveniences to humans, including as potential reservoirs of zoonotic diseases. We studied via live trapping and habitat characterization such commensal small mammal communities in small villages to large cities of Senegal, to try understand how the species share this particular space. Seven major species were recorded, with exotic invasive house mice (Mus musculus) and black rats (Rattus rattus) dominating in numbers. The shrew Crocidura olivieri appeared as the main and more widespread native species, while native rodent species (Mastomys natalensis, M. erythroleucus, Arvicanthis niloticus and Praomys daltoni) were less abundant and/or more localized. Habitat preferences, compared between species in terms of room types and characteristics, showed differences between house mice, black rats and M. natalensis especially. Niche (habitat component) breadth and overlap were measured. Among invasive species, the house mouse showed a larger niche breadth than the black rat, and overall, all species displayed high overlap values. Co-occurrence patterns were studied at the locality and local scales. The latter show cases of aggregation (between the black rat and native species, for instance) and of segregation (as between the house mouse and the black rat in Tambacounda, or between the black rat and M. natalensis in Kédougou). While updating information on commensal small mammal distribution in Senegal, a country submitted to a dynamic process of invasion by the black rat and the house mouse, we bring original information on how species occupy and share the commensal space, and make predictions on the evolution of these communities in a period of ever-accelerating global changes.
1.- There is a strong decrease in liana diversity along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients at global scale, and there is a marked difference in liana diversity between tropical and temperate ecosystems. From these observations it has been proposed that cold temperatures would restrict the liana ecological patterns, because of the vulnerability of their vascular system to freezing-thaw embolism. 2.- Our aim was to establish the functional mechanism behind the loss of liana diversity along a latitudinal temperature gradient. We evaluate the ecological liana performance as the apical growth rate in ten liana species, and functional traits associated with efficiency (maximum hydraulic conductivity and percentage of lost conductivity) and the safety (vessel diameter, vessel density, wood density and root pressure) of water transport. 4.- We found that in the southern site (colder) of the latitudinal gradient lianas species the have low performance, with a 5-fold decrease in their apical growth rate compared to the northern sites (warmer). These would be consequence of a much lower water transport efficiency (26.1-fold decrease) respect to liana species that inhabit northern (warmer) sites, as an outcome of a higher freezing-thaw embolism (37.5% of PLC) and reduction of vessel diameter (3 times narrower). 5.- These results are unmistakable evidence that cold temperature restricts liana performance, in cold environment liana species exhibit a strong decrease in performance, a low efficiency and higher safety of water transport. On the other hand, in warmer sites, we found that liana species exhibit functional strategies associated with higher performance, higher efficiency and low safety of water transport capacity. This trade-off between efficiency and safety of water transport and their effect over performance would explain the latitudinal pattern of liana diversity
Ecological interactions between parasites and their hosts play a fundamental role in evolutionary processes. Selection pressures are exerted on parasites and their hosts, usually resulting in high levels of specificity. Such is the case of ectoparasitic bat-flies, but how large-scale spatial gradients affect the dynamics of their interactions with their bat hosts is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated interaction patterns between bats and their ectoparasitic flies (Streblidae and Nycteribiidae), both presenting their peak of diversity in the Neotropical region, along a latitudinal gradient. Using network analyses and parasitic indices, grounded on the latitudinal diversity gradient theory, we evaluated how spatial gradients affect species interactions and parasitic indices at the macroscale level, predicting that interaction networks should become richer in species, leading to increases in network modularity, size, and specialization, and to a decrease in nestedness and connectance. We conducted a literature review, focusing on studies done in the Neotropical region, and data of our own authorship. We obtained a richness of 97 species of bats parasitized by 128 species of ectoparasitic flies, distributed into 57 interaction networks between latitudes 29ºS and 19ºN in the Neotropic. Network metrics and parasitic indices varied along the latitudinal gradient, with changes in richness of bats and their ectoparasitic flies and in the structure of their interactions; network specialization, modularity and connectance increase with latitude, while network size decreases with latitude. Regions closer to the equator had higher parasite loads. Our results show that interaction networks metrics present a latitudinal gradient and that such interactions, when observed at a local scale, hide variations that only become perceptible at larger scales. In this way, ectoparasites such as bat flies are not only influenced by the ecology and biology of their hosts, but by other environmental factors acting directly on their distribution and survival.
Intraspecific genetic variation in foundation species such as aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) shapes their impact on forest structure and function. Identifying genes underlying ecologically important traits is key to understanding that impact. Previous studies using single-locus genome-wide association (GWA) analyses to identify candidate genes have identified fewer genes than anticipated for highly heritable quantitative traits. Mounting evidence suggests that polygenic control of quantitative traits is largely responsible for this “missing heritability” phenomenon. Our research characterized the genetic architecture of 35 ecologically important traits using a common garden of aspen through genomic and transcriptomic analyses. A multilocus association model revealed that most traits displayed a polygenic architecture, with most variation explained by loci with small effects (likely below the detection levels of single-locus GWA methods). Consistent with a polygenic architecture, our single-locus GWA analyses found only 38 significant SNPs in 22 genes across 15 traits. Next, we used differential expression analysis on a subset of aspen genets with divergent concentrations of salicinoid phenolic glycosides (key defense traits). This complementary method to traditional GWA discovered 1,243 differentially expressed genes for a polygenic trait. Soft clustering analysis revealed three gene clusters (241 candidate genes) involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis and regulation. Our results support the omnigenic model that complex traits are largely controlled by many small effect loci, most of which may not have obvious connections to the traits of interest. Our work reveals that ecologically important traits governing higher-order community- and ecosystem-level attributes of a foundation forest tree species have complex underlying genetic structures and will require methods beyond traditional GWA analyses to unravel.
When two putative cryptic species meet in nature, hybrid zone analysis can be used to estimate the extent of gene flow between them. Two recently recognized cryptic species of banded newt (genus Ommatotriton) are suspected to meet in parapatry in Anatolia but a formal hybrid zone analysis has never been conducted. We sample populations throughout the range, with a focus on the supposed contact zone, and genotype them for 31 nuclear DNA SNP markers and mtDNA. We determine the degree of genetic admixture, introgression and niche overlap. We reveal an extremely narrow hybrid zone, suggesting strong selection against hybrids, in line with species status. The hybrid zone does not appear to be positioned at an ecological barrier and there is significant niche overlap. Therefore, the hybrid zone is best classified as a tension zone, maintained by intrinsic selection against hybrids. While the two banded newt species can evidently backcross, we see negligible introgression and the pattern is symmetric, which we interpret as supporting that the hybrid zone has been practically stationary since its origin (while extensive hybrid zone movement has been suggested in other newt genera in the region). Our study illustrates the use of hybrid zone analysis to test cryptic species status.
A new coccidian species, Isospora elliotae n. sp., from the Australian magpie Gymnorhina tibicen (Latham, 1801) in Western Australia is described and characterised morphologically and molecularly. Microscopic analysis of a faecal sample identified subspheroidal oöcysts (n = 20), 20–22 × 18–20 (20.7 × 18.7); length/width (L/W) ratio 1.05–1.14 (1.10). Wall bi-layered, 1.0–1.3 (1.2) thick, outer layer smooth, c.2/3 of total thickness. Micropyle and oocyst residuum absent, but usually two polar granules are present. Sporocysts (n = 28) ovoidal, 12–13 × 9–11 (12.6 × 9.7); L/W ratio 1.22–1.35 (1.30). Stieda body present, flattened to half-moon-shaped, c. 0.5 deep × 2.0 wide; sub-Stieda indistinct or barely discernible, c. 1.0 deep × 2.5 wide; para-Stieda body absent; sporocyst residuum present, composed of granules dispersed among the sporozoites. Sporozoites vermiform, with anterior and posterior refractile bodies and nucleus. Segments of three gene loci (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and COI) were sequenced and I. elliotae n. sp. exhibited 99.8% genetic similarity to Isospora sp. MAH-2013a (KF648870) followed by 99.7% genetic similarity to Isospora neochmiae Yang, Brice & Ryan, 2016 (KT224380) at the 18S rRNA gene locus. It shared 97.0% genetic similarity with an unnamed Isospora sp. (AY283852) at the 28S rRNA gene locus and it also shared the highest genetic similarity of 99.8% with the unnamed Isospora sp. from an American crow (OL999120) at the COI gene locus. Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species named as I. elliotae n. sp.
Estimation of changes in abundances and densities is essential for the research, management, and conservation of animal populations. Recently, technological advances have facilitated the surveillance of animal populations through the adoption of passive sensors, such as camera traps (CT). Several methods, including the random encounter model (REM), have been developed for estimating densities of unmarked populations but require additional field work. Hierarchical abundance models, such as the N-mixture model (NMM), can estimate densities without performing additional fieldwork but do not explicitly estimate the area effectively sampled. This obscures the interpretation of its densities and requires its users to focus on relative measures of abundance instead. We compare relative trends in density/ abundance for three species (wild boar, red deer, and fox) based on the REM and NMM. The NMM applied here is adapted to overcome two issues potentially leading to poor abundance estimates: (i) we specify a joint observation model, based on a beta distribution, for all species within a community to strengthen the inference on infrequently detected species, and (ii) we model species-specific counts as a Poisson process, relaxing the assumption that each individual can only be detected once per survey. We reveal that NMM and REM provided density estimates in the same order of magnitude for wild boar, but not for foxes and red deer. Assuming a Poisson detection process in the NMM was important to control for inflation of density estimates for frequently detected species. Both methods correctly identified species ranking of abundance/density but did not always agree on relative ranks of yearly estimates within a single population, nor on its linear population trends. Our results suggest that relative population trends are better preserved between NMM and REM compared to absolute densities. Thus practitioners working with counts-only data should resort to relative abundances, rather than absolute densities.
Vairimorpha (=Nosema) ceranae is a widespread pollinator parasite that commonly infects honeybees and wild pollinators, including bumblebees. Honeybees are highly competent V. ceranae hosts and previous work in experimental flight cages suggests V. ceranae can be transmitted during visitation to shared flowers. However, the relationship between floral visitation in the natural environment and the prevalence of V. ceranae among multiple bee species has not been explored. Here, we analyzed the number and duration of pollinator visits to particular components of squash flowers—including the petals, stamen, and nectary—at six farms in southeastern Michigan, USA. We also determined the prevalence of V. ceranae in honeybees and bumblebees at each site. Our results showed that more honeybee flower contacts and longer duration of contacts with pollen and nectar was linked with greater V. ceranae prevalence in bumblebees. Honeybee visitation patterns appear to have a disproportionately large impact on V. ceranae prevalence in bumblebees even though honeybees are not the most frequent flower visitors. Floral visitation by other pollinators was not linked with V. ceranae prevalence in bumblebees. Further, V. ceranae prevalence in honeybees was unaffected by floral visitation behaviors by any pollinator species. These results suggest that honeybee visitation behaviors on shared floral resources may be an important contributor to increased V. ceranae spillover to bumblebees in the field. Understanding how V. ceranae infection risk is influenced by pollinator behavior in the shared floral landscape is critical for reducing parasite spillover into declining native bee populations.
Dispersal is a fundamental process in evolution and ecology. Due to the predominant role of flight in bird movement, their dispersal capabilities can be estimated from their flight morphology. Most predictors of flight efficiency require an estimate of the total wing area, but the existing methods for estimating wing area are multi-stepped and prone to compounding error. Here, we validated a new method for estimating the total wing area that requires only the measurement of the wingspan plus two measurements from the folded wings of study skin specimens: wing length and secondary length. We demonstrate that the new folded-wing method estimates total wing area with high precision across a variety of avian groups and wing shapes. In addition, the new method performs as well as the old method when used to estimate natal dispersal distances of North American birds. The folded-wing method will allow for estimates of the total wing to be readily obtained from thousands of specimens in ornithological collections, thus providing critical information for studies of flight and dispersal in birds.
Hybridization is a natural process whereby two diverging evolutionary lineages reproduce and create offspring of mixed ancestry. Differences in mating systems (e.g., self-fertilization and outcrossing) are expected to affect the direction and extent of hybridization and introgression in hybrid zones. Among other factors, selfers and outcrossers are expected to differ in their mutation loads. This has been studied both theoretically and empirically; however, conflicting predictions have been made on the effects mutation loads of parental species with different mating systems can have on the genomic composition of hybrids. Here we develop a multi-locus, selective model to study how the different mutation load built up in selfers and outcrossers as a result of selective interference and homozygosity impact the long-term genetic composition of hybrid populations. Notably, our results emphasize that genes from the parental population with lesser mutation load get rapidly over-represented in hybrid genomes, regardless of the hybrids own mating system. When recombination tends to be more important than mutation, outcrossers’ genomes tend to be of higher quality and prevail. When recombination is small, however, selfers’ genomes may reach higher quality than outcrossers’ genomes and prevail. Taken together these results provide concrete insights into one of the multiple factors influencing hybrid genome composition and introgression patterns in hybrid zones with species containing species with different mating systems.
Rising ocean temperatures are threatening marine species and populations worldwide, and ectothermic taxa are particularly vulnerable to warming. Echinoderms are an ecologically important phylum of marine ectotherms and shifts in their population dynamics can have profound impacts on the marine environment. The effects of warming on echinoderms are highly variable across controlled laboratory-based studies. Accordingly, synthesis of these studies will facilitate the better understanding of broad patterns in responses of echinoderms to ocean warming. Herein, a meta-analysis incorporating the results of 85 studies (710 individual responses) is presented, exploring the effects of warming on various performance predictors. The mean responses of echinoderms to all magnitudes of warming were compared across multiple biological responses, ontogenetic life stages, taxonomic classes, and regions, facilitated by multivariate linear mixed effects models. Further models were conducted which only incorporated responses to warming greater than the projected end-of-century mean annual temperatures at the collection sites. This meta-analysis provides evidence that ocean warming will generally accelerate metabolic rate (+ 32%) and reduce survival (– 35%) in echinoderms, and echinoderms from sub-tropical (– 9%) and tropical (– 8%) regions will be the most vulnerable. The relatively high vulnerability of echinoderm larvae to warming (– 20%) indicates that this life stage may be a significant developmental bottleneck in the near-future, likely reducing successful recruitment into populations. Furthermore, asteroids appear to be the class of echinoderms that are most negatively affected by elevated temperature (– 30%). When considering only responses to magnitudes of warming representative of end-of-century climate change projections, the negative impacts on asteroids, tropical species and juveniles were exacerbated (– 51%, – 34%, and – 40% respectively). The results of these analyses enable better predictions of how keystone and invasive echinoderm species may perform in a warmer ocean, and the possible consequences for populations, communities, and ecosystems.
Soil fungal community plays an important role in forest ecosystems, and forest secondary succession is a crucial driver of soil fungal community. However, the driving factors of fungal community and function during temperate forest succession and their potential impact on succession processes are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the soil fungal community in three temperate forest secondary successional stages (shrublands, coniferous forests, and deciduous broadleaf forests) using high-throughput DNA sequencing coupled with functional prediction via the FUNGuild database. We found that fungal community richness, α-diversity, and evenness decreased significantly during the succession process. Soil available phosphorus and nitrate nitrogen decreased significantly after initial succession occurred, and redundancy analysis showed that both were significant predictors of soil fungal community structure. Among functional groups, fungal saprotrophs as well as pathotrophs represented by plant pathogens were significantly enriched in the early-successional stage, while fungal symbiotrophs represented by ectomycorrhiza were significantly increased in the late-successional stage. The abundance of both saprotroph and pathotroph fungal guilds was positively correlated with soil nitrate nitrogen and available phosphorus content. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were negatively correlated with nitrate nitrogen and available phosphorus content and positively correlated with ammonium nitrogen content. These results indicated that the dynamics of fungal community and function reflected the changes in nitrogen and phosphorus availability caused by the secondary succession of temperate forests. The fungal plant pathogen accumulated in the early-successional stage and ectomycorrhizal fungi accumulated in the late-successional stage may have a potential role in promoting forest succession. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the response of soil fungal communities to the secondary forest succession process and highlight the importance of fungal communities during temperate forest succession.
Variation in fitness components can be linked in some cases to variation of key traits. Metric traits that lie at the intersection of development, defense, and ecological interactions may be expected to experience strong environmental selection, informing our understanding of evolutionary and ecological processes. Here, we use quantitative genetic and population genomic methods to investigate disease dynamics in hybrid and non-hybrid populations. We focus our investigation on morphological and ecophysiological traits which inform our understanding of physiology, growth, and defense against a pathogen. In particular, we investigate stomata, microscopic pores on the surface of a leaf which regulate gas exhange during photosynthesis and are sites of entry for various plant pathogens. Stomatal patterning traits were highly predictive of disease risk. Admixture mapping identified a polygenic basis of disease resistance. Candidate genes for stomatal and disease resistance map to the same genomic regions, and are experienceing positive selection. Genes with functions for guard cell homeostasis, the plant immune system, components of constitutive defenses, and growth related transcription factors were identified. Our results indicate positive selection is filtering genetic variance from one of the parental species maladpated to a novel pathogen, and changing suites of stomatal traits which contribute to disease variation in natural populations.
Climate change and shifting environmental conditions can allow pathogens to spread into previously unburdened areas. For plant pathogens, this dynamic has the potential to disrupt natural ecosystem equilibria and human agriculture, making predicting plant pathogen range shifts an increasingly important enterprise. Although such predictions will hinge on an accurate understanding of the determinants of pathogen range – namely the environmental, geographical, and host range characteristics that modulate local pathogen habitation – few studies to date have probed these in natural plant populations. Here, we characterize range determinants for the model system of Lewis flax (Linum Lewisii) and its pathogen, flax rust (Melamspora lini), in the Rocky Mountains. Transect surveys were performed to assess three relationships: i) the effect of geographical features – elevation, slope aspect, slope grade, and land-cover – on flax presence and density, ii) the effect of geographical features on flax rust presence and prevalence, and iii) the effects of flax’s local population density and metapopulation structure on flax rust presence and prevalence. We found that flax population density, but not host metapopulation structure, influences the distribution of flax rust. Additionally, we showed that, while the distribution of flax was broadly constrained to a relatively narrow range of geographical and resulting environmental features, flax rust was evenly distributed across the full range of settings measured. These results indicate that a warming environment, which is expected to modulate such features, may restrict the optimal range of the plant more so than that of its pathogen. Importantly, our results also suggest that even if flax shifts its spatial range to escape increasing climatic pressures, flax rust will not face any significant barriers to track this movement.
Illumination of species diversity and their distribution is key to evolution, genetics and conservation. The genus of Sibynophis is a group of rare snakes with less attentions. Based on more extensive sampling, we use both mitochondrial fragments and nuclear gene to explore the species diversity of the species of Sibynophis occurring in China. The results showed that S. c. miyiensis is a synonym of S. c. grahami, and S. c. grahami should be gave a specific rank as S. graham. Sibynophis triangularis was uncovered to be new to China and Myanmar. On basis of our specimens and molecular phylogeny results, the species distribution boundaries of each Chinese species were redefined.
Interdisciplinary teams are on the rise as scientists attempt to address complex environmental issues. While the benefits of Team Science approaches are clear, researchers often struggle with its implementation, particularly for new team members. The challenges of large projects often weigh on the most vulnerable members of a team: trainees, including undergraduate students, graduate students, and post-doctoral researchers. Trainees on big projects have to navigate their role on the team, with learning project policies, procedures, and goals, all while also training in key scientific tasks such as co-authoring papers. To address these challenges, we created and participated in a project-specific, graduate-level Team Science course. The purposes of this course were to: (1) introduce students to the goals of the project, (2) build trainees’ understanding of how big projects operate, and (3) allow trainees to explore how their research interests dovetailed with the overall project. Additionally, trainees received training regarding: (1) diversity, equity & inclusion, (2) giving and receiving feedback, and (3) effective communication. Onboarding through the Team Science course cultivated psychological safety and a collaborative student community across disciplines and institutions. Thus, we recommend a Team Science course for onboarding students to big projects to help students establish the skills necessary for collaborative research. Project-based Team Science classes can benefit student advancement, enhance the productivity of the project, and accelerate the discovery of solutions to ecological issues.