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Phenotypic divergence in an island bee population: Applying geometric morphometrics to discriminate population-level variation in wing venation
  • Madeleine Ostwald,
  • Charles Thrift,
  • Katja Seltmann
Madeleine Ostwald
University of California Santa Barbara

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Charles Thrift
University of California Santa Barbara
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Katja Seltmann
University of California Santa Barbara Cheadle Center for Biodiversity and Ecological Restoration
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Phenotypic divergence is an important consequence of restricted gene flow in insular populations. This divergence can be challenging to detect when it occurs through subtle shifts in morphological traits, particularly in traits with complex geometries, like insect wing venation. Here, we employed geometric morphometrics to assess the extent of variation in wing venation patterns across reproductively isolated populations of the social sweat bee, Halictus tripartitus. We examined wing morphology of specimens sampled from a reproductively isolated population of H. tripartitus on Santa Cruz Island (Channel Islands, Southern California). Our analysis revealed significant differentiation in wing venation in this island population relative to conspecific mainland populations. We additionally found that this population-level variation was less pronounced than the species-level variation in wing venation among three sympatric congeners native to the region, Halictus tripartitus, Halictus ligatus, and Halictus farinosus. Together, these results provide evidence for subtle phenotypic divergence in an island bee population. More broadly, these results emphasize the utility and potential of wing morphometrics for large-scale assessment of insect population structure.
14 Oct 2022Submitted to Ecology and Evolution
18 Oct 2022Submission Checks Completed
18 Oct 2022Assigned to Editor
18 Oct 2022Reviewer(s) Assigned
31 Dec 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
04 Jan 2023Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
07 Feb 20231st Revision Received
08 Feb 2023Submission Checks Completed
08 Feb 2023Assigned to Editor
08 Feb 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
08 Feb 2023Reviewer(s) Assigned
21 Mar 2023Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
24 Apr 20232nd Revision Received
25 Apr 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
25 Apr 2023Submission Checks Completed
25 Apr 2023Assigned to Editor
26 Apr 2023Editorial Decision: Accept