Background and aim of the study. To report early clinical outcomes of the frozen elephant trunk technique (FET) for the treatment of complex aortic diseases after transition from conventional elephant trunk. Methods. A single-center, retrospective study of patients who underwent hybrid aortic arch and FET repair for aortic arch and/or proximal descending aortic aneurysms, acute and chronic Stanford type A aortic dissection with arch and/or proximal descending involvement, Stanford type B acute and chronic aortic dissections with retrograde aortic arch involvement. Results. Between December 2017 and May 2020, 70 consecutive patients (62.7±10.6 years, 59 male) were treated: 41 (58.6%) for acute conditions and 29 (41.4%) for chronic. Technical success was 100%. In-hospital mortality was 14.2% (n=12, 17.1% emergency vs. 10.3% chronic, P=NS); 2 (2.9%) major strokes; 1 (1.4%) spinal cord injury. Follow-up was 12.5 months (IQR 3.7—22.3. Overall survival at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months was 90% (95% CI, 83.2—97.3), 85.6% (95% CI, 77.7—94.3), 79.1% (95% CI, 69.9—89.5), 75.6% (95% CI, 65.8—86.9) and 73.5 (95% CI, 63.3—85.3). There were no aortic re-interventions and no dSINE; 5 patients with residual type B dissection underwent TEVAR completion. Conclusions. In a real-world setting, FET demonstrated a rapid learning curve and good clinical outcomes, even in acute type A aortic dissections. Techniques to perfect the procedure and to reduce remaining risks, and consensus on considerations such as standardized cerebral protection need to be reported.
Left ventricular surgical remodeling (LVSR) has been, for long time, the procedure applied for large dyskinetic, or akinetic, areas as a consequence of a myocardial infarction, manly located in the left anterior descending area. Many surgical techniques were developed, aimed to a pure reduction of the volume of the left ventricular cavity or to add to volume reduction a more physiologic conical shape. The expansion of interventional procedures invaded most of the fields before treated only by cardiac surgeons. In this issue, Pillay describes an hybrid technique, involving both interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons, aimed to LV volume reduction after an anterior myocardial infarction. A series of internal (right ventricular septum) and external (anterior wall) anchors are implanted to approximate the LV free wall to the anterior septum, consequently excluding the scarred myocardium. Although some limitations of this study, the Authors have to be commended for having revitalized a procedure almost eliminated from the surgical scenario
The Fontan operation has improved the survival of children born with single ventricle physiology. Selecting candidates for the Fontan operation may be difficult on borderline cases. No clear criterion has been established on the risk for staged Fontan palliation. Another aspect that remains controversial is the indications for fenestration. Intraoperative pulmonary flow study may identify high-risk patients for the procedure. In this report, the authors describe their results with Fontan procedures in children with pulmonary pressure >15 mmHg.
Background. A staged thoracotomy unifocalization approach has not been the dominant option over the past 20 years primarily due to the introduction of midline one-stage complete unifocalization. Methods. In this issue of the Journal of Cardiac Surgery, van de Woestijne and colleagues publish their experience over the past 30 years in 39 consecutive patients with “consistent” staged unifocalization through a lateral thoracotomy in patients with pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (PA/VSD/MAPCA). Results. They report definitive repair completion in 76.3% of the patients and an overall survival after definitive repair of 96% at 20 years despite the study period ranging from 1989 to the present. Conclusion. Given the multiple variations one could have with PA/VSD/MPACA, a midline unifocalization approach may not always be possible. Surgeons should be familiar with the lateral thoracotomy unifocalization staged approach to PA/VSD/MAPCA.
Type B Aortic Dissection (TBAD) occurs seldomly in pregnancy, but has disastrous consequences for both mother and fetus. The focus of immediate surgical repair of Type A Aortic Dissection due to higher mortality of patients is less clear in its counterpart, TBAD, in which management is controversial and debated. Risk factors for TBAD include: aortic wall stress due to hypertension, previous cardiac surgery, structural abnormalities (bicuspid aortic valve, aortic coarctation), and connective tissue disorders. In pregnancy, pre-eclampsia is a cause of increased aortic wall stress. Management of this condition is often conservative, but this is dependent on a number of factors, including gestation, cardiovascular stability of the patient, and symptomology. In most cases, a Caesarean section prior to intervention is carried out, unless certain indications are present. Due to a scarce number of cases across decades, it is difficult to determine which management is optimal. This article collates knowledge so far on this rare event during pregnancy.
Based on Carpentier’s classification and principles, the techniques for mitral valve repair continue to evolve. We herein report our experience with the morpho-functional echocardiographic analysis of single mitral leaflets, as different anatomic features, even if conflicting, may coexist not only in the two leaflets, but in the same leaflet as well. A classification is proposed, based on the length (normal, short, or long) and mobility (normal, restricted, or excessive) of mitral leaflets. The surgical techniques adopted for mitral valve repair are the direct consequence of this analysis.
The Revivent TC™ TransCatheter Ventricular Enhancement System (BioVentrix Inc, San Ramon, CA, USA) is intended for use in heart failure with cardiac dysfunction a previous myocardial infarction. The resultant increased left ventricular systolic volume and discrete, contiguous, non-contractile (akinetic and/or dyskinetic) scar located in the antero-septal, apical (may extend laterally) region of the left ventricle (LV) lends itself to Revivent. The procedure, called Less Invasive Ventricular Enhancement (LIVE), consists of the implantation of a series of micro-anchors pairs in order to exclude the scarred myocardium, in order to reduce and reshape the LV. We present the procedure step-by-step, as team coordination between the cardiac surgeon and the interventional cardiologist is essential to ensure good procedural outcomes. This is a novel and new technique to address Heart Failure secondary to Myocardial Infarction.
A 57-year-old man suffered chest pain during the COVID-19 pandemic, but he delayed medical treatment due to fear of infection. Four months later, symptoms chest tightness and shortness of breath appeared. Electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed old myocardial infarction; color sonography and myocardial CT revealed apical myocardial defect. He refused surgery and percutaneous transcatheter closure, and follow-up observation. After 22 months, the symptoms of chest tightness and shortness of breath aggravated. He recovered after percutaneous transcatheter closure, and was discharged. This case shows delayed closure is one of the possible options for the patients without severe organ dysfunction or hemodynamic disturbance.
The use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) for intraoperative cardiopulmonary support during lung transplantation has been increasing in the recent years. Our group previously described a novel hybrid extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit for use in lung transplantation. Our novel technique for intraoperative management of this circuit during lung transplantation is described.
The current Covid-19 pandemic is a significant global health threat. The outbreak has profoundly affected all healthcare professionals, including heart surgeons. To adapt to these exceptional circumstances, cardiac surgeons had to change their practice significantly. We herein discuss the challenges and broad implications of the Covid-19 pandemic from the perspective of the heart surgeons.
Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) is a supportive therapy used to provide cardiac support with or without respiratory support in the event of cardiopulmonary failure. The two main types of ECMO are Veno-arterial ECMO (VA-ECMO) and Veno-venous ECMO (VV-ECMO). The use of ECMO in cardiac surgery has been established in cases of post-cardiotomy cardiogenic shock which is refractory to conventional therapy with inotropes and intra-aortic balloon pulsation support. Survival for this, otherwise, fatal condition has been shown to be improving through the use of ECMO. However, the decision and timing to initiate ECMO therapy remains selective and is dependent on a range of factors such as patient factor, clinician’s judgement, meaning there is no consistent and solid ground regarding the timing of ECMO initiation. This article will provide an extensive review of ECMO indications, contraindications, complications and outcomes to analyse the survival benefit of ECMO following cardiac surgery.
Cor triatriatum is a rare congenital heart disease. A 57-years-old woman had cor triatriatum with severe mitral valve regurgitation (MR) and atrial fibrillation (AF). We perfomed mitral valve repair, left atrial appendage resection, and maze procedure by resection of the anomalous septum in the left atrium. At result, MR was controllable and AF disappeared after the operation. Although there is no established maze procedure with cor triatriatum, removing the septum was effective to complete it.
Abstract Introduction The excellent coordination and action by the Ministry of Health of the Nation with the 24 provinces and between the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and the metropolitan area of the homonymous Province, resulted in the moment, in mortality less than 2% and occupation of critical care beds that does not exceed 63%,.Material and Methods Regarding cardiovascular care in the group of patients over 65 years of age, a more accurate analysis could be performed when two comparative half-yearly periods corresponding to the years 2019 and 2020 (pandemic time) were compared. The data collected regarding this age range revealed issues that had not previously been evaluated in our country. That undoubtedly proposes a different solution for the future based on a strict scientific analysis Results, for example, the number of patients who received a stent in relation to coronary artery surgery is greater than 6 to 1, and compared to surgery without pump and minimally invasive from 69 to 1 Conclusion The Argentinian Perspective is good because has an excellent level of qualified medical training in its cardiac and interventional Cardiologist services, as well as healthcare infrastructure distributed throughout the country, which will undoubtedly be able to respond to the new challenges posed for the post-pandemic stage
Cardiac angiofibroma is a very rare diagnosis when a patient develops an intracardiac mass. It is a primary benign cardiac tumor with a scarcity of information in the literature. This case report illustrates a 26-year-old man with a complaint of chronic chest tightness who was firstly diagnosed with right ventricle tumor by echocardiography then underwent cardiac MRI which confirmed the presence of a highly-vascular tumor with radiologically benign behavior. Then his tumor was excised, his postoperative course was uncomplicated and he was well within almost 2 months after discharge. Ultimately the histopathologic findings demonstrated vascular and stromal tissue in favor of angiofibroma and excluded the other diagnoses with IHC and trichrome staining. Angiofibroma is a benign, highly vascular tumor, mostly discovered in the nasopharynx. When it is found in the heart, CMR and pathology are pivotal to rule in its diagnosis. It is isointense in T1 weighted and hyperintense in T2 weighted sequences with intense enhancement following contrast injection. Its pathology contains an admixture of vasculatures with CD31 positive immunoreactivity for endothelial cells and fibrotic tissue with bluish coloration in trichrome staining. Eventually, its treatment includes merely surgical excision given its benign nature.
Background: Although concomitant pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is used more frequently than the Cox-maze procedure, which is currently the gold standard treatment for AF, data on the comparative effectiveness of the two procedures after concomitant mitral valve (MV) surgery are still limited. Objective: We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies comparing the mid-term mortality and recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after concomitant Cox-Maze and PVI in patients with AF undergoing MV surgery based on 12-month follow-up. Methods: Medline, EMBASE databases, and the Cochrane Library were searched from 1987 up to March 2022 for studies comparing concomitant Cox-Maze and PVI. A meta-analysis of RCTs was performed to compare the mid-term clinical outcomes between these two surgical ablation techniques. Results: Three RCTs and 3 observational studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review with 790 patients in total (532 concomitant Cox-Maze and 258 PVI during MV surgery). Most studies reported that concomitant Cox-Maze procedure was associated with a higher freedom from AF at 12-month follow-up than PVI. Regarding AF recurrence, estimate pooled across the 3 RCTs indicated large heterogeneity and high uncertainty. In the largest and highest quality RCT, 12-month AF recurrence was higher in the PVI arm (RR=1.58, 95%CI 0.91-2.73). In 2 out of 3 higher quality observational studies, 12-month AF recurrence was higher in PVI than in Cox-Maze arm (estimated adjusted probabilities 11% vs. 8% and 35% vs. 17%, respectively). RCTs demonstrated comparable 12-month mortality between concomitant Cox-Maze and PVI, while observational studies demonstrated survival benefit of Cox-Maze. Conclusions: Concomitant Cox-Maze in AF patients undergoing MV surgery is associated with better mid-term freedom from AF when compared to PVI with comparable mid-term survival. Large observational studies suggest that there might be a mid-term survival benefit among patients after concomitant Cox-Maze. Further large RCTs with longer standardized follow-up are required in order to clarify benefits of concomitant Cox-Maze in AF patients during MV surgery.
Background: This bibliometric analysis is used to identify publications and highlights the key areas that have significantly shaped modern clinical practice for aortic valve replacement (AVR), which is becoming increasingly relevant. The top 100 most cited manuscripts for AVR were analysed. Method: The Thomson Reuters Web of Science database was searched using the terms ‘aortic valve replacement’, ‘replacement’, ‘aortic valve’ and/or ‘AVR’ for full manuscripts in English Language. The results were ranked by citation number and the top 100 articles were further analysed by subject, author, journal, year of publication, institution and country of origin. Results: 26,782 eligible papers were returned and accumulated 76,680 citations in total, with a mean citation of 767 per manuscript (350-3667). The New England Journal of Medicine accumulated the most citations whereas Circulation published the most papers. Majority of manuscripts examined patients with aortic stenosis, of which half also included aortic regurgitation. The United States of America contributed 51 manuscripts, accumulating 43629 citations. Conclusion: The most cited manuscript, by Leon et al., assessed the outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with severe aortic stenosis who were unfit for surgical replacement. By providing the most influential references this work serves as a guide to topics of interest in the field of AVR.
Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection exposes patients with heart failure to a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. In LVAD patients, one of the key problems that can lead to life-threatening low-flow or pump malfunction due to thrombus development in the inflow cannula, device body, or outflow graft, implicating hemodynamic instability, hemolysis, renal or hepatic failure, or cerebral or peripheral thromboembolism. [Endothelial protein C receptor and thrombomodulin levels are elevated along with procoagulants such as factor VIII, P-selectin, and von Willebrand factor and downregulated along with thrombomodulin as a result of the cytokine storm released by endothelial and immune cells. In general ,](#ref-0013) LVAD thrombosis has been found to occur in 2–13% of adult patients who use current continuous-flow devices. However, LVAD thrombosis due to COVID-19 is underreported and a few cases presented. We present a case of accelerated LVAD outflow thrombosis in the setting of COVID-19 infection with multiorgan failure.
Background: Recent reports have revealed better clinical outcomes for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) than conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).In this retrospective study, we attempted to identify predictors associated with successful weaning off extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support after ECPR. Methods: The demographic and clinical data of 30 ECPR patients aged over 18 years treated between August 2016 and January 2019 were analyzed. All clinical data were retrospectively collected. The primary endpoint was successful weaning from ECMO support after ECPR. Patients were divided into two groups based on successful or unsuccessful weaning off ECMO support (Weaned (n=14) vs. Failed (n=16)). Results: Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, CPR duration, ECMO complications, and loss of pulse pressure significantly predicted the results of weaning off ECMO support. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only CPR duration and loss of pulse pressure independently predicted unsuccessful weaning from ECMO support. Conclusion: We conclude that long CPR duration and loss of pulse pressure after ECPR predict unsuccessful weaning from ECMO. However, unlike CPR duration, loss of pulse pressure during post-ECPR was related to subsequent management. In patients with reduced pulse pressure after ECPR, careful management is warranted because this reduction is closely associated with unsuccessful weaning off ECMO support after ECPR.