Object: To compare the clinical data of sternotomy and left intercostals incision, combined with the literature, to provide the best surgical incision for committed subarterial ventricular septal defect（DCS-VSD）. Methods: From July 2016 to July 2020, a total of 117 cases of occlusion surgeries for DCSVSD, which guided by transoesophagel echocardiography(TEE) were completed, including 34 cases with sternotomy incision and 83 cases with left intercostal incision. Statistics and analysis of the operation and follow-up. Results: 115 cases successfully occluded, the successful rate was 98.29%, and 1 case failed in each group. Pericardial effusion occurred in 5 children after the drainage device was removed, and the pericardial effusion disappeared after diuretic treatment. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in operation time, occlusion time, thoracotomy time and postoperative hospital stay. All the children recovered and were discharged from the hospital, and were followed up for 2-30 months after operation. Conclusion: TEE-guided intercostal DCS-VSD occlusion is safe and effective. There is no statistical difference between two approach with the operation time, chest opening and closing time, occluder placing time, and postoperative hospital staying. At the same time, the surgical incision by intercostal incisionis smaller and the operation invasion is less, it is a surgical approach which worth to develop.
Key Points · Perventricular device closure of peri-membranous ventricular septal defects is safe and effective when compared to conventional surgery and transcatheter device closure. · Intraprocedural transesophageal echocardiography can effectively guide perventricular device closure of peri-membranous ventricular septal defects and improve safety and success rate. · Hybrid approach improves the outcomes in select patients with congenital heart diseases and complex anatomical defects.
Rheumatic mitral valve disease is now rare in high income countries, except for migrant and older residents, it remains an important and ongoing cause of preventable heart disease in Indigenous populations. Despite our major advances in medical technology and understanding, rheumatic fever remains a serious public health problem throughout the world.
The hemispherical aortic annuloplasty reconstructive technology (HAART) is an internal geometric annuloplasty ring designed to restore a natural elliptical shape to the aortic annulus as part of aortic valve repair. We present 4D flow hemodynamic analysis before and after implementation of the HAART ring in patients undergoing ascending aortic replacement. HAART patients displayed similar or improved flow profiles when compared to a patient undergoing ascending aortic replacement alone.
Microinvasive, catheter-based mitral valve repair of severe mitral regurgitation utilizes less invasive approaches with less procedural morbidity and mortality. The procedural steps and clinical benefits of the transcatheter transapical mitral valve annuloplasty (AMEND mitral repair implant) and transcatheter transapical chordal repair systems (Neochord DS 1000 device and Harpoon Mitral Valve Repair System) are reviewed in this manuscript.
Background: Transcatheter mitral valve implantation (TMVI) is a promising and minimally invasive treatment for high-risk mitral regurgitation (MR). The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a novel self-expanding valved stent for transcatheter mitral valve implantation via apical access. Methods: A novel self-expanding mitral valved stent system was designed and fabricated for the in vivo evaluation. It is consists of an atrial flange and a saddle-shaped ventricular body connected by two opposing anchors and two opposing extensions. During the valve deployment, each anchor is controlled by a recurrent string. TMVI was performed in ten pigs using the valve prosthesis through the apical access to verify technical feasibility. Echocardiography and ventricular angiography were used to assess hemodynamic data and valve function. The surviving pigs were sacrificed four weeks later to confirm stent deployment. Results: Ten animals underwent transapical mitral valve implantation with the novel mitral valved stent. Optimal valve deployment and accurate anatomical adjustment were obtained in nine animals. Implantation failed in one case, and the animal died one day later due to stent mismatch. After stent implantation, the hemodynamic parameter of other animals was stable and valve function was normal. The mean pressure across the mitral valve and left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) were 2.98±0.91mmHg and 3.42±0.66 mmHg, respectively. The macroscopic evaluation confirmed the stable and secure positioning of the stents in the mitral valve. No obvious valve displacement, embolism, and paravalvular leakage were observed four weeks after valve implantation. Conclusions: This study proved that the novel mitral valved valve stent is technically feasible in animals. This device features opposing anchors, opposing recurrent strings, and saddle-like ventricular portions, providing structural design details for reducing TMVI complications. However, the long-term feasibility and durability of this valved stent need to be improved and verified.
Title : Submitral Aneurysm: Exploring a Rare PathologyAuthors : Kellen Round BS1, Jake L. Rosen BA1, Colin C. Yost BA1, T. Sloane Guy MD, MBA21Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, 1025 Walnut St #100, Philadelphia, PA 191072Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Curtis Bldg, Ste 620, 1015 Walnut St Philadelphia, PA 19107Running Title: Submitral Aneurysm Commentary
The Recurring Theme of Gender Difference in Cardiac Surgical OutcomesJohn S. Ikonomidis MD, PhDDivision of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel HillWord Count: 1144References: 13Address correspondence to:John S. Ikonomidis MD, PhDProfessor and Chief,Division of Cardiothoracic SurgeryUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill3034 Burnett Womack Building160 Dental Circle,Chapel Hill, NC27599e-mail: [email protected]: (919) 966-3381In this issue of the Journal of Cardiac Surgery,1Newell and colleagues examined contemporary national outcomes following surgical resection of benign primary atrial and ventricular tumors. The 2016-2018 Nationwide Readmissions Database was queried for all patients > 18 years of age with a primary diagnosis of benign neoplasm of the heart who underwent resection of the atria, ventricles, or atrial/ventricular septum. A weighted total of 2,557 patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 61 years, 67.9% were female, and patients had relatively low comorbidity burdens. The authors found that while there was no difference in 30-day mortality (2.1% vs 1.3%, p=0.550), 30-day readmission (7.0% vs 9.1%, p=0.222), or 30-day composite morbidity (56.8% vs 53.8%, p=0.369) between females and males respectively, on multivariable analysis, female sex was independently associated with increased risk of 30-day mortality (OR 2.65, p=0.028).Overall, this was a well study which documents a large contemporary cohort of benign cardiac tumor resections. However, perhaps the most interesting feature of this study is the finding of sex as an independent predictor of 30 day mortality after propensity matching. Cardiac surgery suffers from a gender gap in terms of its outcomes. It has been well established that for many procedures such coronary bypass surgery (CABG), aortic valve replacement, mitral valve surgery, and aortic surgery.2 For CABG, women referred for surgery are typically older than men, have a higher comorbidity (hypertension, renal failure, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease) profile, and more often present in urgent or emergent status for surgery.3 Large, risk-adjusted, propensity matched studies have documented increased mortality in women as compared with men.4-7 This difference also extends into the interventional cardiology realm, where mortality and complication rates have been shown to be higher in women following percutaneous interventions for ST-elevation myocardial infarction.8For aortic valve replacement, a Nationwide Inpatient Sample study of 166809 patients with aortic stenosis from 2003 to 2014 found that women experience higher inpatient mortality (5.6% versus 4%, P<0.001) which persisted after propensity matching (3.3% versus 2.9%, P<0.001).9 For mitral valve surgery, a randomized controlled trial of patients with severe ischemic mitral insufficiency undergoing repair versus replacement found that women had higher mortality than men (27.1% versus 17.4%, p<0.03).10 For aortic surgery, female gender was associated with a higher mortality after both aortic dissection and aortic arch repair.11,12 Reduction in surgical stress through application of minimally invasive approaches still resulted in female sex being a risk factor for higher in-hospital mortality.13 The findings of the present study add further support to the above observations, with the potential addition that, in contrast to the other disease processes described, the majority of patients presenting for surgical removal of benign cardiac tumors were likely free of either symptoms or cardiac sequelae due to the disease, but nevertheless still the gender disparity in mortality persisted.While it is obvious that the above disease processes and their related surgical remedies are quite disparate, the association with increased mortality seen in females seems to be constant. Why is this? A considerable amount has been written regarding sex bias in referral patterns for surgery and even decreased functional reserve and health profiles of women when they are referred for surgical intervention compared with men.2 With regard to these referral patterns, published guidelines directing practitioners regarding indications for surgery are, in general, based upon studies in which the majority of patients were male. Interestingly, in the present study, females made up over two thirds of the patient population.1 While this suggests that females carry a disproportionately more benign cardiac tumors amenable to surgery, the post-surgical mortality disparity remained.The exact reasons for the above disparity remain unelucidated and further work is required to eliminate the gender gap in cardiac surgical outcomes. There is considerable focus on the removal of sex bias in animal and human research, as well as the development of disease treatment guidelines that consider gender in the algorithms. Hopefully and these and other sex-balanced approaches will reveal new insights that will allow us to bring equipoise to gender-stratified cardiac surgical outcomes.
The results of a meta-analysis are more than just the reported odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, and P value. Of equal importance is the fine print of the study which should include assessment of risk of bias, certainty in evidence, and heterogeneity in the individual point estimates and confidence intervals. These areas all have influence on the quality of the data in the analysis. Reading and understanding the fine print is important.
Residual or recurrent symptoms after septal reduction therapy are most often related to inadequate relief of left ventricular outflow gradients. We recently encountered a 71-year-old woman with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and prior alcohol septal ablation who had a unique constellation of findings causing her symptoms. She was found to have four potential causes for her symptoms, residual midventricular obstruction, apical distribution of hypertrophy reducing end-diastolic volume, constrictive pericarditis, and marked arterial stiffness, as reflected by aortic atherosclerosis. She underwent complete pericardiectomy, transaortic septal myectomy, transapical myectomy, and replacement of a heavily calcified ascending aorta.
Title: Learning the Learning Curve of Robotic Coronary Artery BypassAuthors : Saqib Masroor, MD, MBA1, Abdullah Nasif, MD1 1Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center Toledo, OH USAManuscript: The Learning Curve of Robotic Coronary Arterial Bypass Surgery: A Report from The STS DatabaseDisclosure : NoneWord Count : 1229Learning the learning curve of robotically assisted coronary artery bypass grafting is important for the advancement of this technique and the improvement in patient outcomes. There have been many reports of single surgeon learning curves.1, 2 But one can argue that they depict one surgeon’s journey, depicting his or her dedication to the field and making generalization to other surgeons difficult, if not impossible.In this issue of the Journal of Cardiac Surgery, Patrick et al, report on their investigation of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) database for Robotically Assisted Coronary Artery Bypass (RA-CABG) procedures and the beginner surgeon’s learning curve.3Between 2014 and 2018, a total of 1195 RA-CABGs were performed by 114 surgeons, with 74 surgeons performing <5 procedures and only 9 surgeons performing >25 procedures. The median number of cases performed was 2. The patient population was younger and relatively lower risk. The cases included single-vessel as well as multi-vessel Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass (MIDCAB) in addition to Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass (TECAB) and there is no subgroup analysis reported for the different procedures. The authors conclude that the learning curve for procedural success is overcome by the 10th case, even though the curve for reoperation is still steep by the 25th case. Operative mortality however was similar in the two groups. The authors conclude that surgeon experience is an independent predictor of RA-CABG procedural success and that the learning curve consistently flattens after the surgeon’s 10th case. We agree with the first but not the second conclusion. Here is why!In 2013, Prof Mohr’s group in Leipzig reported on the learning curve of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery at their institution over a 17-year period involving 3895 operations performed by 17 surgeons performing their first minimally invasive procedure, using the sequential probability cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistical technique.4 Learning curves were then determined for total operation times, aortic cross-clamp times, and primary outcomes. The mean number of operations per surgeon was 189. The authors reported a learning curve of between 75-125 procedures, with evidence that surgeons needed to perform more than 1 cases per week to maintain good results. Importantly however, patient mortality was not compromised because of the learning curve.To assess the learning curve involved in performing a task, it is important that both the task and the tools needed for the task remain constant. The above publication fulfills both of these criteria. 82 percent of cases were mitral valve repair and 18 percent were mitral valve replacement. The surgical technique and technology used was nearly identical and robotic mitral valve procedures were excluded. The institution had the same leadership over the period, allowing for a very stable work environment as well as a consistent approach including case selection, operative technique etc. As much as possible, every variable was the same, except the variable under investigation-‘the beginner surgeon’. The same group had reported the learning curve for MIDCAB to be between 50-100 cases for 8 surgeons at their institution.5Now let us analyze the report from Patrick et al.3 In this report, the task is not the same and neither are the tools. Single vessel RA-MIDCAB is a less challenging procedure than multi-vessel RA-MIDCAB, with its associated variety of conduit procedures (such as bilateral Internal Mammary Artery (IMA) grafting, Radial Artery T-grafting from Left Internal Mammary Artery (LIMA) to the lateral wall, or aortocoronary Saphenous Vein bypass procedures). TECAB is a totally different beast altogether. Grouping all of them in one learning curve is not a valid assumption. As far as the tools/technique is concerned, some patients had beating heart surgery while others had arrested heart procedures, exposing the Left Anterior Descending Artery (LAD) in MIDCAB is a different task than exposing the lateral wall targets or the stabilizing the LAD endoscopically. Each one of those steps/techniques have their own learning curves.Another shortcoming of this study is the relatively small experience of most of the surgeons in the study. 74 out of the 114 surgeons in the study had < 5-case experience. Moreover, it is not clear what the experience of the surgeons was before embarking on this technique. In the Leipzig study, surgeons with less than 5 cases were excluded from analysis and the 17 surgeons had an experience of at least 40 mitral valve procedures via sternotomy before using the minimally invasive approach.1Finally, the definition of procedural success can be debated. It was defined as an inverse composite of the three primary outcomes - conversion, re-operation, and major morbidity/mortality. While this “procedural success” composite showed a flattening of the learning curve at 10 cases, the reoperation rate was still improving even after 25 cases. A chain is only as strong as the weakest link. If the reoperation rate is still improving after 25 cases, procedural success cannot be declared to have been mastered at 10 cases. Further analysis of the groups of surgeons with < 10 or > 10 cases reveals the procedural success to be 72.9% and 85.3% respectively. 15% failure of procedural success would not be consistent with overcoming the learning curve. We assume that surgeons must strive to continue improving the procedural success until it reaches well into the 90’s percent rate, which would be required for a successful RA-CABG program.The major advantage of a large clinical database such as the Adult Cardiac Surgery Database (ACSD) is the minimization of bias due to its large number of observations. However, for rare procedures such as RA-CABG, that advantage is lost. In fact, with such a small number of observations over such a diverse set of procedures and institutions, ACSD data is not granular enough to explore an individual surgeon’s learning curve because there is no control for numerous other variables at the departmental and institutional level that are not tracked by ACSD. A high-volume center in a steady-state clinical work environment controls for most variables that influence clinical outcomes. The only variable that changes, is the beginner surgeon, and the data thus obtained is more likely to represent the true “learning curve” of the procedure.It is important to have realistic expectations from new technology. Many beginners would embark on this journey, hoping to master the learning curve in 10 cases. And when that expectation is not fulfilled in real life, they might give up altogether on this very useful approach. The number and frequency of operations are important, not just for the surgeons, but even more so, for the rest of the operating room team including anesthesiologists and patient-side assistants. The whole team can be feel discouraged if they continue to have a learning curve beyond 10 or even 20 cases.In conclusion, querying the Adult Cardiac Surgery Database of STS may not be the best way of learning the learning curve of a rare procedure(s). There is a concern that setting an unrealistically optimistic expectation of 10 operative cases to master the learning curve of RA-CABG may be detrimental to the progress of this approach. A high-volume centers’ experience with multiple beginner surgeons may be a better representative of the learning curve of RA-CABG and that study has not yet been done. But based on the learning curves of other similar procedures and our own experience, it is our opinion that the learning curve of RA-CABG would be somewhere between 50 and 100 cases for MIDCAB and another 50-100 for TECAB.
Surgical left ventricle restoration (SVR) was firstly by Cooley in 1958 with the “linear suture technique”, and three decades later, Dor used a circular patch to reconstruct the left ventricle excluding the scarred parts of the septum and ventricular wall. It gained popularity and eventually almost abandoned after the contrasting literature evidences. Hassanabad et al. presented a comprehensive review of current literature on surgical ventricle restoration (SVR) techniques and clinical outcomes, trying to understand if SVR has still a substantial role in the modern medicine.
Background The decision to conserve or replace the native aortic valve following acute type-A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is an area of cardiac surgery without standardised practice. This single centre retrospective study analysed the long-term performance of the native aortic valve and root following surgery for ATAAD. Methods Between 2009 and 2018 all cases ATAAD treated at Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust were analysed. Patients were divided into 2 groups: a) ascending aorta (interposition) graft (AAG) without valve replacement; and b) non-valve-sparing aortic root replacement (ARR). Pre-operative covariates were compared, as well as operative characteristics and post-operative complications. Long-term survival and echocardiographic outcomes were analysed using regression analysis. Results In total, 116 patients were included: 63 patients in the AAG group and 53 patients in the ARR group. In patients where the native aortic valve was conserved, 9 developed severe aortic regurgitation and 2 patients developed dilation of the aortic root requiring subsequent replacement during the follow-up period. Aortic regurgitation at presentation was not found to be associated with subsequent risk of developing severe aortic regurgitation or reintervention on the aortic valve. Overall mortality was observed to be significantly lower in patients undergoing AAG (17.5% vs. 41.5%, p=0.004). Conclusions With careful patient selection, the native aortic root shows good long-term durability both in terms of valve competence and stable root dimensions after surgery for ATAAD. This study supports the consideration of conservation of the aortic valve during emergency surgery for type-A dissection, in the absence of a definitive indication for root replacement, including in cases where aortic regurgitation complicates the presentation.
In this case report we describe how to recycle the Left Internal Thoracic Artery (LITA) when misused but not damaged. 8 years after a Left Anterior Small Thoracotomy followed by LAD stenting for STEMI in 1st post-operative day, a 67 years old woman had a NSTEMI with angiographic evidence of intra-stent re-stenosis with a perfectly patent LITA, harvested only from the 4th to the 6th intercostal space. During redo surgery, LITA was harvested as a pedicle from the anastomosis to the 4th intercostal space and primarily from the 1st to the 4th intercostal space. Special attention was paid at the level of the 4th intercostal space where the vessel was stuck to the sternum: a 15 blade was used being scissors or cautery too dangerous. At the end of harvesting, the LITA was full-length available for a new coronary anastomosis on LAD, distal to the previous one.
Background The ideal aortic valve replacement strategy in young- and middle-aged adults remains up for debate. Clinical practice guidelines recommend mechanical prostheses for most patients less than 50 years of age undergoing aortic valve replacement. However, risks of major hemorrhage and thromboembolism associated with long-term anticoagulation may make the pulmonary autograft technique, or Ross procedure, a preferred approach in select patients. Methods Data were retrospectively collected for patients 18 to 50 years of age who underwent either the Ross procedure or mechanical aortic valve replacement (mAVR) between January 2000 and December 2016 at a single institution. Propensity score matching was performed and yielded 32 well-matched pairs from a total of 216 eligible patients. Results Demographic and preoperative characteristics were similar between the two groups. Median follow-up was 7.3 and 6.9 years for Ross and mAVR, respectively. There were no early mortalities in either group and no statistically significant differences were observed with respect to perioperative outcomes or complications. Major hemorrhage and stroke events were significantly more frequent in the mAVR population ( p < 0.01). Overall survival ( p = 0.93), freedom from reintervention and valve dysfunction free survival ( p = 0.91) were equivalent. Conclusions In this mid-term propensity score-matched analysis, the Ross procedure offers similar perioperative outcomes, freedom from reintervention or valve dysfunction as well as overall survival compared to traditional mAVR but without the morbidity associated with long-term anticoagulation. At specialized centers with sufficient expertise, the Ross procedure should be strongly considered in select patients requiring aortic valve replacement.
Pump thrombosis is a rare and infrequent complication of HeartMate III left ventricular assist device (LVAD). While there are reports of pump thrombosis in the postoperative period, to our knowledge, there have been no prior reports on pump thrombosis in the intraoperative period. Here we present a case of a 24-year-old female who required HeartMate III LVAD implantation for progressive heart failure and the intraoperative period was complicated with pump thrombosis (PT). Managing PT in the intraoperative period is challenging and time-sensitive because of its rare occurrence and paucity of recommendations in diagnosing the PT.