The success of the left ventricular assist device (LVAD) as a treatment for terminal left-side heart failure is still restrained by some severe complications associated with mechanical circulatory support. Pump thrombus still affects many patients. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The therapeutic options include augmentation of anticoagulation and antiplatelet medication, intravenous or catheter-guided thrombolysis, and pump exchange. Heart transplantation would be a desirable option in this population, but unfortunately, it is only theoretical given the increasing number of LVAD implants and decreasing number of organ donors. A retrograde washout maneuver may be a treatment option in pre-pump thrombosis in selected patients. Therefore, the decision should be made on an individual basis after balancing the risks and benefits of different treatment approaches.
Introduction Anomalous aortic origin of coronary artery (AAOCA) is the second leading cause of sudden cardiac death in children and young adults. Intramural-interarterial course is the most frequent anatomic variation and coronary unroofing is widest adopted for surgical management. Symptoms recurrence is described regardless of the technique used. This study aims to describe how an anatomic patient-centered approach aimed to restore a normal coronary artery take-off is associated with symptoms resolution. Methods From 2008 to 2021, 25 patients were operated on for an AAOCA at a median age of 20 years. Nineteen patients had a right AAOCA and six had left AAOCA. Intramural course was present in 18 patients. Seventy-six percent were symptomatic. No episodes of aborted sudden cardiac death before surgery was described in the population. Surgical technique used were coronary unroofing in 18 patients, coronary neo-ostioplasty in 3, coronary re-implantation in 3 and main pulmonary artery re-location in one. Results No hospital mortality or re-operation was observed in our experience as well as major complications related to surgery. Mean hospital length of stay was 8.5 days. None of patients reported symptoms recurrence at follow-up. Young athletes returned to play competitive sport. Postoperative computed-tomography scan evaluation showed a general improvement of the take-off angle. Conclusions AAOCA requires a patient anatomic-based surgical management. There is not a single surgical technique that can fits all anatomic subtype of AAOCA. Surgical techniques may be selected on the base of the preoperative images and intraoperative findings. In our experience this policy is associated with no symptoms recurrence.
In the work by Zheng Quan MD et al. about the Use of Intraoperative Transit Time Flow Measurement Can Reduce Preoperative Myocardial Injury (1), the authors did a retrospective, observational study of the effects of exposure to the TTFM procedure . Fifty-nine people received TTFM, while 47 did not. In total, 7 (6.6%) had at least one grafting vessel obstruction. Only 1 patient where the TTFM was used had an occlusion graft vs. 6 patients where the TTFM was not used and had postoperative injury. In 2001, the use of TTFM techniques for assessing the quality of grafts intraoperatively, on the basis of the presence and volume of flow were clearly described) In conclusion, the work of Zheng Quan MD et al. remarks the importance of the use of TTFM to reduce the incidence of preoperative myocardial injury during off-pump coronary bypass surgery. support of, in some ways, the recent expert opinion to promote the use of TTFM
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is rarely associated with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR). Unidentified PAPVR, however, might increase the risk of pulmonary valve replacement in repaired TOF patients by right ventricular (RV) dilatation and RV dysfunction. Here, we present a case of a 19-year-old male who received a correction of TOF 18 years ago and a rare type of PAPVR was identified during the follow up period. The anomalous pulmonary veins were connected to the left hepatic vein, left superior vena cava, and the right superior vena cava. Performing a pulmonary valve replacement, PAPVR was also corrected by an intra-atrial baffle with a new approach using the venous plexus between the left hepatic vein and the right hepatic vein.
Objectives: Female sex is considered a risk factor for mortality and morbidity following cardiac surgery. This study is the first to review the UK adult cardiac surgery national database to compare outcomes following surgical coronary revascularisation and valvular procedures between females and males. Methods: Using data from National Adult Cardiac Surgery Audit (NACSA), we identified all elective and urgent, isolated coronary artery by-pass grafting (CABG), aortic valve replacement (AVR) and mitral valve replacement/repair (MVR) procedures from 2010-2018. We compared baseline data, operative data and outcomes of mortality, stroke, renal failure, deep sternal wound infection, return to theatre for bleeding and length of hospital stay. Multivariable mixed-effect logistical/linear regression models were used to assess relationships between sex and outcomes, adjusting for baseline characteristics. Results: Females, compared to males, had greater odds of experiencing 30-day mortality (CABG OR 1.76, CI 1.47-2.09, p<0.001; AVR OR 1.59, CI 1.27-1.99, p<0.001; MVR OR 1.37, CI 1.09-1.71, p=0.006). After CABG, females also had higher rates of post-operative dialysis (OR 1.31, CI 1.12-1.52, p<0.001), deep sternal wound infections (OR 1.43, CI 1.11-1.83, p=0.005) and longer length of hospital stay (Beta 1.2, CI 1.0-1.4, p<0.001) compared to males. Female sex was protective against returning to theatre for post-operative bleeding following CABG (OR 0.76, CI 0.65-0.87, p<0.001) and AVR (OR 0.72, CI 0.61-0.84, p<0.001). Conclusion: Females in the UK have an increased risk of short-term mortality after cardiac surgery compared to males. This highlights the need to focus on the understanding of the causes behind these disparities and implementation of strategies to improve outcomes in females.
Background: The average living age of the population is constantly increasing and so is the incidence and prevalence of aortic valve disease. Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is the current gold standard treatment. Nevertheless, the use of prosthetic valves in SAVR is associated with issues that impact patients’ quality of life. Aortic valve neocuspidization (AV Neo) offers a means to solve this dilemma by minimising foreign valve tissue. AV Neo can either be performed using glutaraldehyde-treated autologous pericardium (Ozaki procedure) or bovine pericardium (Batista procedure). Aims: This commentary aims to discuss the recent study by Chan and colleagues which highlighted the surgical approach, clinical outcomes and limitations of the Ozaki procedure, and compare this to the Batista procedure. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed using multiple electronic databases including PubMed, Ovid, Embase and Scopus in order to collate the relevant research evidence. Results: Although the Ozaki procedure can achieve favourable results whilst mainly avoiding the need for life-long oral anticoagulation with mechanical valves, it still has several limitations that may hinder results. AV Neo using glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium, developed by pioneer cardiac surgeon Dr. Randas J. Vilela Batista, yields superior clinical outcomes to Ozaki’s, including excellent survival, lower complications and minimal need for reoperation as well as shorter operative times. Conclusion: AV Neo offers a means to perform SAVR whilst escaping the prosthetic valve issues. However, the Batista procedure has shown beyond doubt that it can be considered the superior approach for AV Neo over the Ozaki procedure.
Background Combined ONCAB and SAVR is the treatment of choice for concomitant severe aortic stenosis and coronary artery disease not amenable to PCI intervention. Extensive aortic calcification and atheromatous disease may prohibit cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamping. In these cases Anaortic OPCAB is a Class I (EACTS 2018) and Class IIA (AHA 2021) indication for surgical coronary revascularization. TAVR has similar benefits when compared to SAVR for this population (Partner 2 & 3). Herewith we describe a case series of concomitant Anaortic OPCAB and TAVR via the transfemoral approach for patients with coronary artery and valve disease considered too high risk for traditional CABG and SAVR due to severe aortic disease. Methods/Results Eight patients underwent anaortic OPCAB and transfemoral TAVR during the same anesthetic in a hybrid operating room. Seven patients with multi-vessel disease had anaortic OPCAB via a sternotomy using composite grafts, one patient with LAD disease had anaortic OPCAB using a Da Vinci assisted MIDCAB approach. All patients then had an Edwards Sapien 3 TAVR placed percutaneously via the common femoral artery. There was no thirty-day mortality or CVA in the series and all patients were discharged to home or a rehabilitation facility on day 4-13. Conclusions Combined anaortic OPCAB and transfemoral TAVR is a safe and feasible approach to treating concomitant extensive coronary artery disease and severe aortic stenosis. The aortic no-touch technique provides benefits in the elderly high-risk patients by reducing the risk of post-operative myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular stroke.
Title page:Title : Letter to the editor: Mitral valve repair with the edge‐to‐edge technique: A 20 years single‐center experienceArticle type : Letter to the editorCorrespondence : 1. Syed HussainContact : +923323230575 Email : [email protected] : Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical College Liyari KarachiAddress : R-75 Railway Housing Society, 13-D1, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi, 75300Co-authors : 2.Muhammad MaazContact : +923032194036 Email : [email protected] : Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical College Liyari KarachiAddress : Flat No. B-16, Hasham Apartment, Rafa-e-aam, Malir Halt, Karachi, 752103. Dr. Sumeet KumarContact : +92-3337351513Email :[email protected] : Dow University of Health Sciences, KarachiAddress : Mission Rd, New Labour Colony Nanakwara, Karachi, Karachi City, Sindh 74200Word count : 482Conflict of interest : NoneDeclaration : NoneAcknowledgment : None
Prenatal diagnosis of hypoplastic aortic arch and coarctation of aorta is still challenging and remains one of the most difficult cardiac defect to diagnose. The results reveal significant improvement of prenatal diagnosis of hypoplastic arch and coactation of aorta. The data also shows the significant overlapping of fetal aortic isthmus z score between the infants who need the arch procedure and those who do not.
Surgery for extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms is challenging. We report the case of a young woman with Takayasu’s arteritis who developed aortic dissection and was successfully treated with our novel extended arch repair method, which we termed “parabronchial approach”. Surgery was performed via a simple sternotomy. The left pulmonary artery was compressed caudally by a surgical assistant arm typically used for coronary artery bypass grafting. This method simplified the creation of a distal anastomosis to the descending aorta behind the left bronchus. Postoperative computed tomography revealed a distal anastomosis at the sixth thoracic vertebra . This parabronchial approach could reduce the frequency of choosing a highly invasive approach and can be a potential minimally invasive approach in cases requiring extensive thoracic aortic aneurysm repair.
Background: Mitral valve apparatus is complex and involves the mitral annulus, the leaflets, the chordae tendinae, the papillary muscles as well as the left atrial and ventricular myocardium. Secondary mitral regurgitation is consequence of regional or global left ventricle remodeling due to an acute myocardial infarction (75% of cases) or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (25% of cases). It is associated with an increase in mortality and poor outcome. There is a potential survival benefit deriving from the reduction in the degree of severity of mitral regurgitation. So the correction of the valve defect can change the clinical course and prognosis of the patient. The rationale for mitral valve treatment depends on the mitral regurgitation mechanism. Therefore, it is essential to identify and understand the pathophysiology of the mitral valve regurgitation. Aim of the study: The aim of this review is to describe the crucial role of transthoracic and trans-esophageal echocardiography, in particular with 3D echocardiography, for the assessment of the severity of secondary mitral regurgitation, anatomy and hemodynamic changes in the left ventricle. Moreover, the concept that the mitral valve has no organic lesions has been abandoned. The echocardiography must allow a complete anatomical and functional evaluation of each component of the mitral valve complex, also useful to the surgeon in choosing the best surgical approach to repair the valve. Conclusions: Echocardiography is the first-line imaging modality for a better selection of patients, according to geometrical modifications of mitral apparatus and left ventricle viability, especially in preoperative phase.
Abstract: Background: Fluid overload (FO) and acute kidney injury (AKI) after CABG surgery are due to multiple perioperative etiologies associated with high failure to rescue rates (FTR) and associated with poor outcomes 1-,3. Diuretics, fluid restriction, ultrafiltration (UF) and renal replacement therapies are the treatment modalities implemented as monotherapy or in combination to address this severe complication. There is limited data on the use of simplified UF therapy as a fluid management strategy in post-operative cardiac surgery patients. Methods: A retrospective review of our post operative isolated CABG patients was done from Jan 1 st, 2020 to July 31 st, 2021. Those subjected to a simplified UF protocol incorporating Goal Directed Therapy (GDT) to treat fluid overload and/or acute kidney injury were evaluated for 30-day survival and readmission rates. Results: A total of 254 isolated CABG procedures were performed during this period. Ultrafiltration was used in 17 (6.7%) patients. The 30-day mortality for the entire CABG cohort was 5/254 (2.0%) patients and in the UF group 0/17 (0%). The mean age of UF therapy patients was 65.8 years (Range 41-89). The mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons STS mortality score of UF patients was 5.7% (Range 0.6-50.0). The 30-day survival for the 17 patients placed on UF therapy was 100% and their readmission rate was 2/17 (11.7%). Conclusions: The use of ultrafiltration in this patient population with relatively high STS scores provided a safe and effective modality to manage fluid balance but further studies are needed.
Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery can be performed with or without robotic assistance. In this issue of the journal Zheng et al compare between these two approaches in a propensity matched study over a 5 year period and show that the two techniques have similar successful short and mid term outcomes. Although we are proponents of the robotic approach, we agree with their conclusions and discuss in this commentary some of the previously published studies that have shown similar findings.