Microaxial LVADs are increasingly used for cardiogenic shock treatment. We compared the short-term outcome of patients supported with different microaxial devices for cardiogenic shock. A retrospective propensity score-adjusted analysis was performed in cardiogenic shock patients treated with either the Impella CP (n=64) or the Impella 5.0/5.5 (n=62) at two tertiary cardiac care centers between 1/14 and 12/19. Patients in the Impella CP group were significantly older (69.6±10.7 vs 58.7±11.9 years, p=0.001), more likely in an INTERMACS level 1 (76.6% vs 50%, p=0.003) and post CPR (36% vs 13%, p=0.006). The unadjusted 30-day survival was significantly higher in Impella 5.0/5.5 group (58% vs 36%, p=0.021, odds ratio (OR) for 30-day survival on Impella 5.0/5.5 was 3.68 (95% CI [1.46-9.90], p=0.0072). After adjustment, the 30-day survival was similar for both devices (OR 1.23, 95% CI [0.34-4.18], p=0.744). Lactate levels above 8 mmol/L and preoperative CPR were associated with a significant mortality increase in both cohorts (OR=10.7, 95% CI [3.45-47.34], p<0.001; OR=13.2, 95% CI [4.28-57.89], p<0.001, respectively). Both Impella devices offer a similar effect with regards to survival in cardiogenic shock patients. Preoperative CPR or lactate levels exceeding 8 mmol/L immediately before implantation have a poor prognosis on Impella CP and Impella 5.0/5.5.
Background: Heart transplant from controlled donation after circulatory death (cDCD) is an emerging strategy that is rapidly expanding and may help increase the heart donor pool. Materials and Methods: The use of thoracoabdominal normothermic regional perfusion (TANRP) with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation device has allowed to perform cardiac transplantation after cDCD. Several experiences have been carried out in recent years, however the maximum cold ischemia time is still unknown. We present a successful case of heart transplantation using a graft from cDCD from another hospital with 201 minutes of cold ischemia time, the longest published in Europe. Discussion and conclusion: Heart transplant from cDCD could be a good alternative to brain dead donation. This experience suggests than nonlocal cardiac donation in controlled asystole could tolerate long periods of cold ischemia time and break the main barriers in cardiac donation after circulatory death.
Patients suffering retrograde type A dissection after TEVAR for type B dissection are at a higher risk of mortality than their spontanous counterparts and the kind of optimal therapy remains obscure. We present a rare case of successful open surgical repair where distal open anastomosis was accomplished cutting off the un-covered stent portion and suturing a vascular prosthesis to the dissected distal aortic arch including the covered stent part. The clinical course was regular. Immediate and radical repair in the aortic arch may be the adequate response in such instances.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been adopted to support patients with acute severe cardiac or pulmonary failure that is potentially reversible and unresponsive to conventional management. In the presence of pulmonary embolism, mesenteric ischemia (MI) can present as a life-threatening disorder that leads to intestinal ischemia. Due to the nature and acuity of these conditions, determining adequate perfusion upon surgical intervention is challenging for the operating surgeon, especially in the presence of cardiogenic shock despite ECMO support. Indocyanine green fluorescent angiography (ICG-FA) has proven to be useful for real-time vascular perfusion assessment, which may potentially decrease the rate of development of perfusion-related complications. The case report here-in presented, breaks the paradigm of performing noncardiac surgical procedures on ECMO support via a pioneering visual aid technique. Learning objective Indocyanine green fluorescent angiography (ICG-FA) is a promising visual trans-operatory technique providing real-time feedback for the adequate identification and assessment of target tissue/organs. The high morbidity and mortality rates associated to MI and CS – particularly when concomitantly present – hinders salvage surgical therapy. The use of acute ECMO provides stabilization yet lacks any curative solutions. This case report highlights the importance of adequate surgical intervention under extracorporeal life support in the presence of both CS and MI. To the authors’ knowledge, said approach has never been attempted, yet trails a promising therapy for the improvement of associated mortality rates.
Background: Four factor prothrombin complex (PCC4), a concentrate of factors II, VII, IX, X and protein C and S, has been used selectively for reversal of oral anticoagulation prior to surgery. There is data to support PCC4 as opposed to supplemental fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to manage postoperative bleeding following cardiac surgery. The preemptive, intraoperative use of PCC4 in cardiothoracic surgery has not been studied though it may prevent postoperative bleeding, the need for blood transfusion and the risk of transfusion related acute lung injury, volume overload, and right ventricular (RV) heart failure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the intraoperative administration of PCC4 to decrease bleeding and lower the rate of blood transfusion. Methods: A single institution retrospective chart review conducted from May 2020 to November 2021 of patients who received PCC4 intraoperatively during cardiothoracic surgery of high risk variety. Patients were evaluated for type of surgery, demographics, baseline anticoagulation, PCC4 dose, type and quantity of blood transfusion within 72 hours postoperatively, chest tube output, incidence of right ventricular failure, hypersensitivity reactions, acute kidney injury, thrombosis, acute lung injury, and mortality within 45 days of the operative dose of PCC4. Results: Thirty five patients received PCC4 at a mean dose of 2920 units. Sixty five percent of cases were LVAD or heart transplant. The protocol is to use PCC4 30 units/kilogram immediately after completion of protamine administration. Inclusion criteria are: cardiothoracic surgery with increased risk of postoperative right heart failure commonly secondary to blood product transfusion, or cardiothoracic surgery associated with increased risk of bleeding, including: heart transplant, LVAD implant, aortic dissection, and redo sternotomy (e.g. coronary artery bypass). Total chest tube output was recorded as a mean of 757 mL for 24 hours after surgery (32 ml/hr). Overall median event rates of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion were 0 (interquartile range 0 - 3 units) and 4 (interquartile range 2-5 units). Overall, forty-three percent and eighty-nine percent of cases received FFP and RBC, respectively. There was one occurrence of right ventricular failure, one occurrence of acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy, one occurrence of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, one occurrence of venous thromboembolism related to a central venous access line, and one death unrelated to surgery or PCC4 that was attributed to advanced heart failure not amenable to advanced therapies. Conclusion: Overall patients received a low rate of blood transfusion, had minimal chest tube output, and there was a small incidence of right heart failure. Patients did not have an increased risk of adverse effects such as acute kidney injury or venous thromboembolism. A randomized controlled clinical trial comparing the observed dose and timing of PCC4 versus routine postoperative bleeding management with blood product transfusion is recommended.
Abstract Background Subaortic stenosis (SAS) was a rare congenital heart disease of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), ranging from “isolated” lesions to “tunnel” or “diffuse” lesions. We conducted a retrospective study to describe the characteristics of patients with different lesions and analyze the risk factors for reoperation. Methods In this study, we examined a single-center retrospective cohort of SAS patients undergoing resection from 2010 to 2019. Patients were classified as simple lesion group (n = 37) or complex lesion group (n = 28). Demographics, perioperative findings, and clinical data were analyzed. Results The surgical effect of the two groups was significantly lower than that before the operation (p <0.05). The median age at operation was 6(3-11.8) years. There was no operative mortality. In complex lesion group, extracorporeal circulation time (CPB time), aortic cross clamp time (ACC time), mechanical ventilation time and ICU stay time were longer. The median follow-up period was 2.8 years (range 1-3.8), with two late death. Six patients (9.2%) required reoperation due to restenosis or severe aortic insufficiency. The freedom from reoperation rates at 5 years was 66.7% for simple lesion but only 52.3% for complex lesion (p = 0.036). Conclusions Although the lesions include many forms, subaortic stenosis resection was still satisfactory. However, the reoperation after initial surgical treatment was not infrequent, especially in patients with complex lesion.
Background: Acute type A aortic dissection(ATAAD) is life-threatening and requires immediate surgery. Sudden chest pain may lead to a risk of misdiagnosis as acute coronary syndrome and may lead to subsequent antiplatelet therapy. We used the Chinese Acute Aortic Syndrome Collaboration Database (AAS) to study the effects of antiplatelet therapy (APT) on clinical outcomes. Methods: The AAS database is a retrospective multicentre database where 31 of 3092 had APT with aspirin or clopidogrel or both before surgery. Before and after propensity score matching, the incidence of complications and mortality was compared between APT and non-APT patients by using a logistic regression model. The sample remaining after PSM was 30 in the APT group and 80 in the non-APT group. Results: The sample remaining after matching was 30 in the APT group and 80 in the non-APT group. We found 10 cases with percutaneous coronary intervention in the APT group(33.3%). The APT group received more volume of packed red blood cell (RBC), 8.4±6.05 units; plasma, 401.67±727 ml, and platelet transfusion(14.07±8.92 units). The drainage volume was much more in the APT group( 5009.37±2131.44ml, P=0.004). Mortality was higher in APT group(26% vs 10%, P=0.027). The preoperative APT was independent predictor of mortality(OR 6.808, 95% CI1.554-29.828, P = 0.011). Conclusion: APT prior to ATAAD repair was associated with more transfusions and higher early mortality. The timing of surgery should be carefully considered based on the patient’s status and the surgeon’s experience.
Background: While enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathways have been successfully applied for cardiac surgery, there has been limited research directly comparing ERAS protocols to ad hoc narcotic use after surgery. We hypothesized that a standardized ERAS protocol would provide similar pain management and psycho-emotional outcomes while decreasing the use of opioids in the hospital and after discharge. Methods: As part of a 7-month quality improvement project, cardiac surgery patients on a fast tracked to extubate pathway were assigned PRN narcotic pain management for 3 months (n=49). After a 1-month ERAS protocol optimization period, a separate group of patients were given the ERAS protocol (n=34). Clinical outcomes were gathered, and participants completed a quality of recovery survey that allowed for the assessment of pain and symptom control at 4 time-points post-surgery. Results: Among 83 participants, 66% were male and the mean age was 53 years. There were no differences in patient characteristics between PRN and ERAS groups (all p>0.244). There were no differences between ERAS and PRN groups for surgery characteristics (all p>0.060), inpatient outcomes (all p>0.658), or after-discharge outcomes (all p>0.397). Furthermore, across all time-point comparisons, there were no supported differences in patient-reported outcome and pain control between the ERAS and PRN narcotic groups (all p>0.075). Conclusions: An ERAS protocol demonstrated similar patient outcomes and pain control to traditional opioid use for postoperative cardiac surgery patients. Further research is recommended to further confirm the results of this study.
Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) and p-values are widespread in the cardiac surgical literature but are frequently misunderstood and misused. The purpose of the review is to discuss major disadvantages of p-values and suggest alternatives. We describe diagnostic tests, the prosecutor’s fallacy in the courtroom, and NHST, which involve inter-related conditional probabilities, to help clarify the meaning of p-values, and discuss the enormous sampling variability, or unreliability, of p-values. Finally, we use a cardiac surgical database and simulations to explore further issues involving p-values. In clinical studies, p-values provide a poor summary of the observed treatment effect, whereas the three- number summary provided by effect estimates and confidence intervals is more informative and minimises over-interpretation of a “significant” result. P-values are an unreliable measure of strength of evidence; if used at all they give only, at best, a very rough guide to decision making. Researchers should adopt Open Science practices to improve the trustworthiness of research and, where possible, use estimation (three-number summaries) or other better techniques.
Background and Aim: To review the anatomical details, diagnostic challenges, associated cardiovascular anomalies, and techniques and outcomes of management, including re-interventions, for the rare instances of transposition physiology with concordant ventriculo-arterial connections. Methods: We reviewed clinical and necropsy studies on diagnosis and surgical treatment of individuals with transposition physiology and concordant ventriculo-arterial connections, analyzing also individuals with comparable flow patterns in the setting of isomerism. Results: Among reported cases, just over two-thirds were diagnosed during surgery, after initial palliation, or after necropsy. Of the patients, four-fifths presented in infancy with either cyanosis or congestive cardiac failure, with complex associated cardiac malformations. Nearly half had ventricular septal defects, and one-fifth had abnormalities of the tricuspid valve, including hypoplasia of the morphologically right ventricle. A small minority had common atrioventricular junctions We included cases reported with isomerism when the flow patterns were comparable, although the atrioventricular connections are mixed in this setting. Management mostly involved construction of intraatrial baffles, along with correction of coexisting anomalies, either together or multi-staged. Overall mortality was 25%, with one-fifth of patients requiring pacemakers for surgically-induced heart block. The majority of survivors were in good functional state. Conclusions: The flow patterns produced by discordant atrioventricular and concordant ventriculo-arterial connections remain an important, albeit rare, indication for atrial redirection. The procedure recruits the morphologically left ventricle in the systemic circuit, producing good long-term functional results. The approach can also be used for those with isomeric atrial appendages and comparable hemodynamic circuits.
The well-accepted role of the Heart Team in assessing patients suffering from aortic stenosis is becoming the standard approach in most centers. A tailored approach to individual patients may lead to significant changes in outcomes even though SAVR will continue to play a major rollin the treatment of patients presenting more co-morbidities and anatomical challenges.
Introduction Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) became the standard of care for treating type B aortic dissections and descending thoracic aortic aneurysms. We aimed to describe the racial/ethnic differences in TEVAR utilization and outcomes. Methods The National Inpatient Sample was reviewed for all TEVARs performed between 2010 and 2017 for Type B aortic dissection and descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (DTAA). We compared groups stratifying by their racial/ethnicity background in whites, black, Hispanic, and others. A mixed-effects logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between race/ethnicity and the primary outcome, in-hospital mortality. Results A total of 25,260 admissions for TEVAR during 2010–2017 were identified. Of those, 52.74% (n= 13,322) were performed for aneurysm and 47.2% (n= 11,938) were performed for type B dissection. 68.1% were white, 19.6% were black, 5.7% Hispanic, and 6.5% were classified as others. White patients were the oldest (median age 71 years; <0.001), with TEVAR being performed electively more often for aortic aneurysm (58.8% vs. 34% vs. 48.3% vs. 48.2%; p<0.001). In contrast, TEVAR was more likely urgent or emergent for type B dissection in black patients (65.6% vs 41.1% vs 51.6% vs 51.7%; p<0.001). Finally, the black population showed a relative increase in the incidence rate of TEVAR over time. The adjusted multivariable model showed that race/ethnicity was not associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusion Although there is a differential distribution of thoracic indication and comorbidities between race/ethnicity in TEVAR, racial disparities do not appear to be associated with in-hospital mortality after adjusting for covariates.
Invasion in cardiac surgery is maximum when cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB) is used. The period is of no consequence as all complications such as Bleeding, Cerebral. Renal , vascular and Inflammatory responses are initiated when CPB is used. The term minimally invasive is therefore most inappropriate when CPB is used irrespective of the type of operation, incision, cosmesis, and use of sophisticated technology.This editorial highlights the misuse of the term Minimally invasive cardiac surgery.
Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is a rare disease characterized by the partial elevation of the aortic root. Few reports are available on the surgical treatment for infants. We report the repair of an extremely rare case of a sinus of Valsalva defect with a ventricular septal defect and right ventricular outflow tract stenosis in an infant. It was not a sinus of Valsalva aneurysm, but it exhibited abnormal partial bulging of the aortic root and forming an aneurysm-like cavity within the right ventricular myocardium. We performed direct closure of the sinus of Valsalva aneurysm-like cavities and intracardiac repair in two stages. Three years after total repair, the patient remained healthy and asymptomatic.
Deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) with prosthetic graft infection is a rare, though lethal, complication after cardiovascular surgery via median sternotomy. This commentary is a review of a report by Takagi et al. published in the Journal of Cardiac Surgery that reported favorable outcomes in patients with DWSI with prosthetic graft infection treated with an enhanced strategy consisting of hydro-debridement with pulsed lavage and negative pressure wound therapies.
The success of the left ventricular assist device (LVAD) as a treatment for terminal left-side heart failure is still restrained by some severe complications associated with mechanical circulatory support. Pump thrombus still affects many patients. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The therapeutic options include augmentation of anticoagulation and antiplatelet medication, intravenous or catheter-guided thrombolysis, and pump exchange. Heart transplantation would be a desirable option in this population, but unfortunately, it is only theoretical given the increasing number of LVAD implants and decreasing number of organ donors. A retrograde washout maneuver may be a treatment option in pre-pump thrombosis in selected patients. Therefore, the decision should be made on an individual basis after balancing the risks and benefits of different treatment approaches.
Cardiac ochronosis is a rare disease, estimated to affect 1 in 250,000 persons. While there is extensive evidence of the musculoskeletal alterations of the disease, cardiac involvement has not been widely studied and most information we currently have derives from case reports and case series. We report the case of a 64-year old patient with a known history of alkaptonuria who presented with dyspnea and weight loss. On evaluation, he was found to have severe aortic stenosis, coronary artery disease, and interventricular septal hypertrophy. Surgery revealed extensive ochronotic pigment deposition affecting the cardiac septum, both internal thoracic arteries, the native coronary arteries, and the aortic valve. Ochronotic heart disease is an often disregarded presentation of alkaptonuria. More information is needed on the course of the disease, as well as long-term outcomes after valve replacement surgery and/or CABG in patients with alkaptonuria.