Right superior vena cava draining in the left atrium is a rare anomaly, commonly associated with other cardiac defects. Herein we present the case of a 9 year old patient, asymptomatic but with right heart dilation with sinus venous defect, bilateral superior vena cavas with the right draining into the left atrium.
The future of CABG can be bright if cardiac surgeons will change the paradigm followed so far and will return in history, abandoning the current comfortable life and accepting the burden represented by the cost of innovation, which has a path already mapped out but not sufficiently trodden for guilty lack of commitment.
Title Page:Title: Letter to the Editor: Long-term outcomes of elderly patients receiving continuous flow left ventricular supportArticle Type: Letter to the EditorCorrespondence: 1. Saad Ahmed qureshiContact No: +92-3360135206. Email: Saadqureshi1099@gmail.comInstitute: Ziauddin medical college KarachiAddress: NHS phase 4 tower 5b flat 5/7ORCID: 0000-0003-0857-3818Co-Authors: 2. Hamid ullah khanContact No: +92-3040215080. Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgInstitute: Ziauddin University karachiAddress: Plot no AS 04 sector 32-D Nasir colony Korangi no 01ORCID: 0000-0002-0938-6080Co-Authors: 3. Umer sami KhanContact No: +92-304044743. Email: Umersamikhan@gmail.comInstitute: Ziauddin University karachiAddress: B4, Block B, Gulshan-e-jamal, Rashid minhas Road, KarachiORCID: 0000-0003-0849-7915Word Count: 320
TITLE PAGE Title: Letter to the Editor: Minimally invasive aortic valve repair using geometric ring annuloplastyArticle type: Letter to the editorCorrespondence : 1. Bilawal NadeemContact: +92-3137562580 Email: email@example.comInstitute: King Edward Medical University, LahoreAddress: Mianwal Ranjha Dera Allah Wadhaya Tehsil and District Mandi Bahauddin, 50400Words count: 418Conflict of interest: noneDisclosure: noneFunding: none
Background: Over-resuscitation in post-cardiac patients is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, there is a growing interest in concentrated human albumin and hypertonic saline for resuscitation in cardiac patients following revascularization surgery. In this article, we will review the use of hyperosmolar fluid therapies for resuscitation in post-cardiac surgical patients from the current literature. Methods: A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed) utilizing keywords, narrowing publications to 2010-2019. Results: Patients receiving concentrated albumin after cardiac surgery required less fluid bolus therapy, less time on vasopressors and were found to have a less positive fluid balance compared to patients receiving crystalloids. The impact on cardiac output and mean arterial pressure in those given concentrated albumin compared to crystalloid boluses was inconsistent. There was no difference in mortality in those given 20% albumin compared to crystalloids post-revascularization. Hypertonic saline showed some positive immunomodulatory effects in patients post-revascularization. Studies identifying the impact of hypertonic saline on fluid balance and mortality compared to normal saline in patients following revascularization surgery are on-going. Conclusions: In this analysis, publications on resuscitation with hyperoncotic albumin and hypertonic saline in patients post-revascularization surgery were reviewed. While there is data in support of using these alternative fluid therapies in other critically ill patient populations, the limited literature in support of using concentrated albumin and hypertonic saline for resuscitation in following cardiac surgery is equivocal.
Introduction: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used as a refractory treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19, but there has been little evidence of its efficacy. We conducted this study to share our experience using ECMO as a bridge to recovery for ARDS due to COVID-19. Methods: All adult patients who were placed on ECMO for ARDS due to COVID -19 between April 2020 and June 2020 (during the first wave of COVID-19) were identified. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of these patients were analyzed with a specific focus on the differences between patients who survived to hospital discharge and those who did not. Results: 20 COVID-19 patients were included in this study. All patients were placed on veno-veno ECMO. Comparing between survivors and non-survivors, older age was associated with hospital mortality (p=0.02). The following complications were observed: renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (35%, n=7), bacteremia during ECMO (20%, n=4),coinfection with bacterial pneumonia (15%, n=3), cannula site bleeding (15%, n=3), stroke (10%, n=2), gastrointestinal bleeding (10%, n=2), and liver failure (5%, n=1). The complications associated with patient mortality were culture positive septic shock (p=0.01), culture-negative systemic inflammatory response syndrome (p=0.01), and renal failure (p=0.01). The causes of death were septic shock (44%, n=4), culture-negative systemic inflammatory response syndrome (44%, n=4), and stroke (11%, n=1). Conclusions: Based on our experience, ECMO can improve refractory ARDS due to COVID-19 in select patients. Proper control of bacterial infections during COVID-19 immunomodulation therapy may be critical to improving survival.
Background: Acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD) is a rare condition that can be divided into complicated (CoTBAD) and uncomplicated (UnCoTBAD) based on certain presenting clinical and radiological features, with UnCoTBAD constituting the majority of TBAD cases. The classification of TBAD directly affects the treatment pathway taken, however, there remains confusion as to exactly what differentiates complicated from uncomplicated TBAD. Aims: The scope of this review is to delineate the literature defining the intervention parameters for UnCoTBAD. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using multiple electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and EMBASE to collate and summarize all research evidence on intervention parameters and protocols for UnCoTBAD. Results: A TBAD without evidence of malperfusion or rupture might be classified as uncomplicated but there remains a subgroup who might exhibit high-risk features. Two clinical features representative of “high risk” are refractory pain and persistent hypertension. First line treatment for CoTBAD is TEVAR, and whilst this has also proven its safety and effectiveness in UnCoTBAD, it is still being managed conservatively. However, TBAD is a dynamic pathology and a significant proportion of UnCoTBADs can progress to become complicated, thus necessitating more complex intervention. While the “high risk” UnCoTBAD do benefit the most from TEVAR, yet, the defining parameters are still debatable as this benefit can be extended to a wider UnCoTBAD population. Conclusion: Uncomplicated TBAD remains a misnomer as it is frequently representative of a complex ongoing disease process requiring very close monitoring in a critical care setting. A clear diagnostic pathway may improve decision making following a diagnosis of UnCoTBAD. Choice of treatment still predominantly depends on when an equilibrium might be reached where the risks of TEVAR outweigh the natural history of the dissection in both the short- and long-term.
During the first phase of COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, several strategies have been taken to deal with the pandemic outbreak. The Regional Authority of Lombardy remodeled the hospitalization system in order to allocate appropriate resources to treat COVID-19 patients and to identify “Hub/Spoke” hospitals for highly specialized medical activities. The Hubs hospitals were required to guarantee full time evaluation of all patients presenting with cardiovavascular diseases with an independent pathway for patients with suspect or confirmed COVID-19 infection. San Raffaele Hospital was identified as Hub for cardiovascular emergencies and the Vascular Surgery Department was remodeled to face this epidemic situation. Surgical treatment was reserved only to symptomatic, urgent or emergent cases. Large areas of the hospital were simultaneously reorganized to assist COVID-19 patients. During this period, 135 patients were referred to San Raffaele Vascular Surgery Department. COVID-19 was diagnosed in 24 patients and, among them, acute limb ischemia was the most common cause of admission. At this time, the COVID-19 trend is in decline in Italy and the local authorities reorganized the health care system in order to return to normal activities avoiding new escalations of COVID-19 cases. Several strategies have been taken to ensure the safety of the San Raffaele hospital, and maintaining potentially suspected patients with COVID-19 separated from other patients. The aim of this paper is to report the remodeling of the Vascular Surgery Department of San Raffaele Hospital as regards the strategies of preparation, escalation, de-escalation and return to normal activities during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Background: We aimed to determine the relationship between HbA1c levels and the development of postoperative atrial fibrillation (PoAF) . Methods: 288 patients diagnosed with diabet and undergoing on-pump coronary bypass were included in the study. Those with serum HbA1c levels between 5.5-7.0% were defined as Group 1, those with serum HbA1c levels between 7.1-8.9% were defined as group 2, while those with serum HbA1c levels 9.0% and above formed Group 3. Data between groups were compared. The predictive values of the independent variables for the development of PoAF were measured. Results: We did not found difference between groups in terms of development PoAF (p=0.170). Presence of hypertension was determined as an independent predictor for the development of PoAF (p=0.003) but not HbA1c levels (p=0.134). There was 50.5% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity for HbA1c values of 9.06% and above to predict PoAF (AUC: 0.571, p=0.049) Conclusions: HbA1c levels were not an independent predictor of PoAF development. However, we think that high HbA1c levels may be a risk factor for the development of PoAF.
The Impella 5.5 with SmartAssist (Abiomed; Danvers, MA) is a life-saving treatment option in acute heart failure which utilizes a continuous heparin purge solution to prevent thrombosis. In patients with contraindications to heparin, alternative anticoagulation strategies are required. We describe the stepwise management of anticoagulation in a coagulopathic patient with persistent cardiogenic shock following a coronary artery bypass procedure who underwent Impella 5.5 placement. A direct thrombin inhibitor-based purge solution was utilized while evaluating for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Use of a novel bicarbonate-based purge solution (BBPS) was successfully used due to severe coagulopathy. There were no episodes of pump thrombosis or episodes of severe bleeding on the BBPS and systemic effects of alkalosis and hypernatremia were minimal.
On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak a pandemic: it took a toll of more than 300.000 deaths and more than 4.5 million cases, worldwide. The initial data pointed out the tight bond between cardiovascular diseases and worse outcomes in COVID19-patients. Epidemiologically speaking, there is an overlap between the age-groups more affected by COVID-related death and the age-groups in which Cardiac Surgery has its usual base of patients. The Cardiac Surgery Departments have to think to a new normal: since the virus will remain endemic in the society, dedicated pathways or even dedicated Teams are pivotal to treat safely the patients, in respect of the safety of the health care workers. Moreover, we need a keen eye on deciding which pathologies have to be treated with priority: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) showed a higher mortality rate in patients affected by COVID19, but it’s however reasonable to think that all the cardiac pathologies affecting the lung circulation - such as symptomatic severe mitral diseases or aortic stenosis - might deserve a priority access to treatment, in order to increase the survival rate in case of an acquired-Coronavirus infection later on.
Background Post-Cardiotomy ECMO (PC-ECMO) represents a unique subset of critically ill patients, with a paucity of data regarding long-term survival, and characteristics correlated with short and long-term outcomes. We present a retrospective cohort PC patients supported with ECMO at a single institution, with outcomes at 1 and 3-year follow-up. Methods Data was collected retrospectively for all patients requiring ECMO within 72 hours of index cardiac operation, excluding assist devices and heart transplantation. Operative data, frozen mediastinum status, cannulation site, postoperative hemorrhage, and timing of cannulation (immediate versus delayed) were all collected and examined. Primary outcomes were ability to wean from ECMO, hospital survival, and long-term survival. Results 33 patients required PC ECMO, representing a total of 179 days of ECMO support. Overall survival data were: ability to wean 61%, hospital survival 55%, one month survival 45%. The estimated 12 and 36 month survival for all PC ECMO patients was 40% and 33% respectively. Twelve and 36 month survival for all hospital survivors was 66% and 60% respectively. Operative times, type of operation performed, open chest status, reoperation for hemorrhage and cannulation location (central/peripheral) were all compared. There were no statistically significant relationships of these variables short or long-term survival. Conclusions Overall 12 month survival for PC-ECMO patients was 40%, and was 33% at 36 months. For hospital survivors, 1 year survival was 66%, and was 60% at 36 months. These data support PC-ECMO as a reasonable salvage strategy, with mid-term survival comparable to other surgically treated diseases.
Cardiac surgical patients are often discharged to a rehabilitation facility to complete the convalescence in a protected setting. This care pathway is usually reserved for elderly and fragile patients, with severe and invalidating comorbid conditions. Between March and April 2020, nineteen patients were discharged from our unit to a rehabilitation clinic where a hotbed of SARS-CoV-2 infection was documented on April 17. After the outbreak, all patients underwent screening with real-time PCR on nasal swabs, and 18/19 patients were found positive. Diversely from other observations on perioperative COVID-19 reporting mortality rates of 30-40%, the COVID-19 had a benign course in our cohort: six patients were completely asymptomatic, and only seven patients required hospitalization (no deaths). We describe the baseline, operative and postoperative features of these patients, and present some potential explanations for the surprisingly benign course of the COVID-19 in this cohort.
The outcomes of the arterial switch operation have improved over a period of time with the elimination of coronary artery anatomy as a risk factor for operative mortality in some series. However, cumulatively, when all the series published so far are analyzed, two coronary variations, namely the single sinus coronary artery origin and intramural type, persist as risk factors for an adverse operative outcome.
Unicuspid aortic valves are rare congenital malformations. Surgical repair is feasible in aortic regurgitation, and in some cases of aortic stenosis. The standard surgical approach is a bicuspidization and symmetrization with pericardial patch augmentation of valve cusps. Herein, we are describing our original technique for bicuspidization of a unicuspid aortic valve without cusp patch augmentation. We also address the surgical management of a commissural diastasis.