A quarter of coronary arteriovenous fistulas may present aneurysmal dilatation; however, spontaneous rupture of the aneurysm is rare. We present a rare case of ruptured coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) associated with coronary fistulas that presented cardiac tamponade. Subsequent to pericardial drainage, surgical repair of the CAA associated with coronary fistulas was performed electively. The aneurysm was located on the left anterior aspect of the pulmonary artery trunk. It communicated with both the left and right coronary arteries by anomalous fistulous vessels that drained into the pulmonary artery trunk. The feeding arteries and fistulous opening were ligated and closed, respectively, from within the aneurysm. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging was performed pre- and postoperatively to ensure no residual coronary fistulas were present. Although the rupture of CAA associated with coronary fistulas is rare, it should be considered as one of the potential causes of acute cardiac tamponade.
Although a Kommerell diverticulum (KD) and aberrant subclavian artery (ASA) are a common congenital anomaly, a KD and ASA with two thoracic aortic aneurysms are rarely reported. We describe a case of a KD with a right ASA and two thoracic saccular aortic aneurysms, which were treated with a total arch replacement, frozen elephant trunk technique, and thoracic endovascular aortic repair.
Congenital superior vena cava (SVC) stenosis is a very rare anomaly especially in pediatric population. Co-existence with obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) has never been reported. Clinical examination should prompt detailed and focused evaluation for this treatable etiology. SVC stenosis, although causing SVC syndrome, may decrease the severity of pulmonary venous hypertension by limiting the amount of blood in obstructed common chamber. Pericardial patch augmentation can cure SVC stenosis, and may allow for growth potential as well. We describe a case of congenital SVC stenosis in a case of obstructed supra-cardiac TAPVC in a 3 month old infant, managed successfully.
We report the successful endovascular repair of a rare case of aortic rupture caused by axillary intra-aortic balloon pump insertion failure. A 38-year-old Jehovah’s Witness female with situs inversus totalis was referred to our hospital for acute decompensated heart failure. We placed an axillary intra-aortic balloon pump for circulatory support. However, an exchange was required due to balloon malfunction (kinked driveline). Unfortunately, the exchange was complicated by an iatrogenic aortic rupture along with large hematoma compressing the trachea. Emergent endovascular repair was performed successfully without any blood transfusion. Postoperative computed tomography showed a successfully repaired aorta and resolving hematoma.
Dear Editor,We read with interest the published article by Ikeda et al. , they performed thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in a patient with Marfan syndrome (MFS) for acute complicated type B aortic dissection (TBAD) during COVID-19 pandemic.The evidence around TEVAR for MFS is scarce and open repair remains the gold treatment. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many patients are either being denied treatment or given inferior options on the basis of age, comorbidities and risk of COVID pneumonia; however, the guidelines for aortic intervention in the United Kingdom have remained largely unchanged from pre-COVID-19 era . Our questions to the authors relate to whether their solution was an unnecessary compromise. There is no clear indication defined in their case as a cold leg doesn’t necessary means an ischaemic limb. The TEVAR procedure performed aiming to minimise hospital stay, yet this approach may have put the patient at higher risk of developing paraplegia and visceral organ malperfusion, while compromising her long-term care.There is need to clarify if she had risk factors that prone her to a higher risk acquiring severe COVID-19 which necessitated deviating from the traditional open surgery recommended for MFS patients with TBAD . The authors did not report on renal function, evidence of bowel malperfusion or whether there was resistant hypertension that needed immediate intervention. If the need to expediate intervention was the fear of limb ischaemia, is it conceivable a femoro-femoral bypass could have saved the limb and definitive open surgery on her aorta could have been performed at a later stage, especially since she was haemodynamically stable.Moreover, as Marfan-diseased aortas are prone to further dilatation, we believe their justification for opting for endovascular repair should also have been more balanced, exploring the know high rate of long-term TEVAR-associated complications in MFS patients including endoleaks, retrograde dissection, stent-graft-induced new entry tears, surgical conversions and reintervention. There is also need for imaging follow-up to assess the success of TEVAR and early detection of aforementioned complications.
Redo multiple valve replacement is known to carry additional risk of morbidity and mortality. Currently, a transcatheter-based valve-in-valve approach could be useful in reducing potential serious consequences. On the other hand, this approach poses several technical challenges regarding the device and procedural aspects of the procedure. We present the case of a 78-year-old man who presented with symptoms of heart failure due to mitro-aortic bioprosthesis degenerations who was deemed to be at extremely high risk for conventional redo surgery. A two-steps single admission transcatheter-based approach was planned with a transfemoral aortic valve-in-valve procedure followed by a trans-apical mitral valve-in-valve implantation. The outcome was good and the recovery was fast.
Objective Affecting 1 in 500 individuals; Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant cardiovascular disorder which is prevalent throughout the world. Surgical myectomy and alcohol septal ablation (ASA) are two methods currently used for the management of drug refractory Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). ASA may prove to be a useful, less invasive tool when confronting patients with HOCM especially those who are more elderly or deemed to be a higher surgical risk. Methods Electronic literature search was conducted to identify relevant articles that discussed invasive methods to treat drug refractory HOCM. No limits were placed on timing of the publication or the type of article. Key words and MeSH terms were used to conduct the search and the results were summarized in the relevant section. Results Current evidence suggests that alcohol septal ablation is a safe and effective procedure in treating patients with HOCM with similar short- and long-term outcomes when compared with surgical myectomy. Selection of patient with appropriate assessment is the key for satisfactory outcomes. Conclusion ASA has been shown to be a safe and reliable procedure; advanced imaging techniques and dedicated multi-disciplinary teams can be used to carefully select patients with HOCM. Though surgical myectomy is recommended as gold standard treatment for drug refractory HOCM, however, ASA may play an increasing role in the near future due an ageing population; both ASA and SM can have a synergistic effect in treating those who are affected by HOCM.
According with latest guidelines, percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC) represents the first-line treatment for symptomatic severe mitral valve stenosis (SMVS) with favourable morphology, We report a successful surgical treatment of a potential life-threatening complication occurred during PMC. Heart-Team discussion and closed collaboration with Centres are crucial for decision-making and Cardiac Surgery onsite should be ensured for high-risk procedures.
It is known that LIMA-to-LAD is the major determinant of the patient’s prognosis and long term survival for a large percentage of the population with coronary artery disease Off pump, minimally invasive LIMA-to-LAD provides excellent long-term results ). As Awad et al state, this pandemic has disrupted and challenged delivery of health care services worldwide ). LIMA-to-LAD can be performed with minimal resources in an isolated area from COVID-19 facilities within the hospital.Hybrid treatment of coronary heart disease is another option for patients under these circumstances . Surgeons must take the lead and play an active role in the decision process. . As the authors conclude, given fluidity of the current situation, there is need for new processes and clinical decision – making that will allow patients to receive appropriate treatment,
Transcatheter repair systems are becoming increasingly popular as a potential solution for high-risk and inoperable patients with mitral regurgitation. The Cardioband (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California) is a transcatheter direct annuloplasty device, based on the concept of an undersized ring annuloplasty. We report a case of minimally invasive surgical explantation of a failed Cardioband device 21 months after its implantation. Intraoperatively, it was found that3 anchors of the Cardioband device were detached from the posterior annulus at P2. In this report, a “cut and unscrew” technique with some tips and tricks is presented for the removal of the device.
Dear Dr Harky et. al,We appreciate your inquiry regarding our case report. Dr Harky et. al suggested that TEVAR for a Marfan patient could be an unnecessary approach even during the COVID-19 pandemic.We believe in this particular case, the endovascular approach was fully justified as the patient had clear signs of end organ ischemia at presentation. He presented with extreme right leg ischemia with diffuse numbness. There was no detectable distal arterial flow of the right extremity by a Doppler and physical evaluation. Contrast computed tomography scan showed a completely occluded right common iliac artery and diminished flow to the right renal and celiac arteries due to the compression of the true lumen from the false lumen. Preoperative creatinine was elevated to 1.2 mg/dl. She was also suffering ongoing right kidney malperfusion.It was during the time when COVID-19 epidemic started spreading rapidly in New York City. Our hospital beds were filled with COVID-19 patients and there was a shortage of medical supplies with no ventilators immediately available. It was important to reduce exposure of the individual to the hospital environment and minimize length of stay and ventilator needs. As such, we chose to proceed with TEVAR to minimize the risk of lung injury which can occur in open repair. Postoperative respiratory failure is a major issue in open thoracic aortic repair . The patient did not have a risk of respiratory comorbidities but we believed that this pandemic placed all patients at risk for contracting COVID-19 and subsequent acute respiratory distress .Due to the high risk of spinal cord ischemia in this particular patient, we performed TEVAR with a distal bare metal component to preserve the blood flow into spinal cord arteries . The initial clinical treatment plan was to perform the TEVAR as a bridge to open repair. We obviously will need to follow-up with her carefully and if any signs of failure of TEVAR is detected, open repair will ultimately be required.Dr Harky et. al suggested axillary femoral artery bypass to rescue the ischemic leg, however, this patient also suffered malperfsuion of the renal and celiac arteries, so further intervention was required.Thank you for your insightful suggestions.References1) Khan FM, Naik A, Hameed I, et al. Open repair of descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms: a meta-analysis. Ann Thorac Surg . 2020;S0003-4975(20)30865-1.2) Bai Y, Yao L, Wei T, et al. Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19. JAMA. 2020;323:1406–7.3) Lombardi JV, Cambria RP, Nienaber CA, et al. Five-year results from the study of Thoracic Aortic Type B Dissection Using Endoluminal Repair (STABLE I) study of endovascular treatment of complicated type B aortic dissection using a composite device design. J Vasc Surg. 2019; 70:1072-81.
Background and aim: The incidence of symptomatic cerebral infarction after minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) with retrograde perfusion has been increasing. However, there is no report about silent brain infarction (SBI) after MICS with retrograde perfusion. Because SBI may cause delirium and decline of cognitive function, this condition is important clinically. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the occurrence of SBI after MICS via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Between July 2014 and July 2018, 174 patients underwent MICS with retrograde perfusion and postoperative MRI in this study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the occurrence of SBI and to identify its risk factors. Results: Of 174 patients, 26 (14.9%) presented with SBI. The univariate analysis revealed that age and aortic valve stenosis (AS) are the risk factors of SBI. Meanwhile, multivariate analysis revealed AS as the only risk factor of SBI. Conclusions: At our institution, the incidence of SBI after MICS with retrograde perfusion was acceptable.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a technology that has allowed for further cardiopulmonary support in the setting of respiratory failure refractory to mechanical ventilation. While it has evolved since its first description, one area of improvement continues to be its implementation. With advancements in cannulation techniques, in recent years, there has been a plethora of new cannulas that has been introduced to the market. For urgent venous-venous cannulation, the right internal jugular vein along with either femoral veins remain the most utilized strategy due to minimal need for imaging support. This allows for safe bedside cannulation. However, as the number of days of ECMO support continue to increase bridging patients to an easier to ambulate and more comfortable cannulation strategy is preferred. Therefore, we describe a method for bridging right jugular-femoral cannulation to left subclavian placement of the CrescentTM Dual Lumen Catheter without interrupting ECMO support.
Background: We report our experience in aortic arch repair with the E-vita Open hybrid prosthesis and describe the changes in our technique over time. Methods: Between October 2013 and December 2019, 56 patients underwent a total aortic arch replacement with the E-vita Open hybrid prosthesis. Main indications were thoracic aorta aneurysm (n=27) and acute type A aortic dissection (n=18). We analyze the technique and results in the overall series, and compare both between our early (Group I, 25 patients) and late experience (Group II, 31 patients). Results: Overall in-hospital mortality was 7.1% (4), and permanent stroke and spinal cord injury were 3.6% and 1.8% respectively. 15 patients (26.8%) underwent a planned second procedure on the distal aorta: 13 endovascular, 1 open and 1 hybrid. Survival at 1 and 3 years was 90.7% and 80.7%. Group II included more patients with acute dissection (45.2% vs 16%, p=0.02), a higher rate of bilateral cerebral perfusion (100% vs 64%, p<0.001), left subclavian artery perfusion during lower body circulatory arrest (87.1% vs 0%, p<0.001), early reperfusion (96.8% vs 40%, p<0.001), and zone 0-2 distal anastomosis (100% vs 72%, p=0.02). In-hospital mortality (3.2% vs 12%) and permanent stroke (0% vs 8%) tended to be lower in Group II. Conclusions: Total arch replacement with E-vita Open hybrid prosthesis in complex thoracic aorta disease is safe. One-stage treatment is feasible when pathology does not extend beyond the proximal descending thoracic aorta. In any case, it facilitates subsequent procedures on distal aorta if needed.
Background: With the limited number of available suitable donor hearts resulting in plateaued numbers of heart transplantations, short- and long-term mechanical circulatory support devices, including the implantation of total artificial hearts (TAH) are modalities that are increasingly being used as treatment options for patients with end-stage heart failure. The superior vena cava syndrome has been described in this context in various disease processes. We report successful venoplasty for superior vena cava syndrome in a patient with a TAH. Case Presentation: A 65 years old man with a history of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy had received a left ventricular assist device, and then two years later underwent orthotopic heart transplantation using the bicaval anastomosis technique. The post procedural course was complicated by primary graft failure, resulting in the need for the implantation of a TAH. About 5 months after the TAH implantation he started to develop complications such as volume retention, swelling of the upper extremities, and was diagnosed to have a superior vena cava syndrome. The patient underwent a successful venoplasty of his superior vena cava by interventional radiology with resolution of upper body edema, normalization of renal and liver function. Conclusion: Potential fatal complications caused by catheter or wire entrapment in the right sided mechanical valve of a TAH have been reported. We describe a safe method for the treatment of superior vena cava syndrome in patients with TAH.
Background Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a well-established method for the evaluation of coronary artery stenosis before PCI. However, whether FFR assessment should be routinely used before CABG remains unclear. Our aim was to compare the outcomes of using FFR with that of conventional CAG (coronary angiography) in guiding CABG. Method This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Six studies were included, of which four were double-arm (two prospectively randomised) and two single-arm, reporting data on 1931 patients. A meta-analysis was done for double-arm studies, comparing rates of overall death, MACCE, target vessel revascularisation, spontaneous MI and graft patency. The data of all six studies were entered in a pooled analysis for the endpoints of overall death, spontaneous MI and target vessel revascularisation. Results Meta-analysis demonstrated significantly lower death rates in the FFR-guided than the CAG-guided group (p=0.03) and no significant differences in the rates of MACCE, target vessel revascularisation, spontaneous MI and graft patency. In pooled analysis, FFR-guided group was linked with lower rates of overall death and spontaneous MI. Graft occlusion rate was significantly lower after FFR in one retrospective study, however, this difference was lost in meta-analysis (p=0.24). Conclusion In this meta-analysis, FFR-guided CABG was associated with lower overall death rate and was, at least, non-inferior in the endpoints of MACCE, target vessel revascularisation, spontaneous MI and graft patency than CAG-guided CABG. Further randomized trials are needed to define the role of FFR in guiding CABG surgery.