Key Points · Perventricular device closure of peri-membranous ventricular septal defects is safe and effective when compared to conventional surgery and transcatheter device closure. · Intraprocedural transesophageal echocardiography can effectively guide perventricular device closure of peri-membranous ventricular septal defects and improve safety and success rate. · Hybrid approach improves the outcomes in select patients with congenital heart diseases and complex anatomical defects.
Background. A staged thoracotomy unifocalization approach has not been the dominant option over the past 20 years primarily due to the introduction of midline one-stage complete unifocalization. Methods. In this issue of the Journal of Cardiac Surgery, van de Woestijne and colleagues publish their experience over the past 30 years in 39 consecutive patients with “consistent” staged unifocalization through a lateral thoracotomy in patients with pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (PA/VSD/MAPCA). Results. They report definitive repair completion in 76.3% of the patients and an overall survival after definitive repair of 96% at 20 years despite the study period ranging from 1989 to the present. Conclusion. Given the multiple variations one could have with PA/VSD/MPACA, a midline unifocalization approach may not always be possible. Surgeons should be familiar with the lateral thoracotomy unifocalization staged approach to PA/VSD/MAPCA.
Background: Uncomplicated type B aortic dissection (un-TBAD) has been managed conservatively with medical therapy in order to control the heart rate and blood pressure to limit disease progression, in addition to radiological follow-up. However, several trials and observational studies have investigated the use of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in un-TBAD and suggested that TEVAR provides a survival benefit over medical therapy. Outcomes of TEVAR have also been linked with the timing of intervention. Aims: The scope of this review is to collate and summarise all the evidence in the literature on the mid- and long-term outcomes of TEVAR in un-TBAD, confirming its superiority. We also aimed to investigate the relationship between timing of TEVAR intervention and results. Methods: We carried out a comprehensive literature search on multiple electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE in order to collate and summarise all research evidence on the mid- and long-term outcomes of TEVAR in un-TBAD, as well as its relationship with intervention timing. Results: TEVAR has proven to be a safe and effective tool in un-TBAD, offering superior mid- and long-term outcomes including all-cause and aorta-related mortality, aortic-specific adverse events, aortic remodelling, and need for reintervention. Additionally, performing TEVAR during the subacute phase of dissection seems to yield optimal results. Conclusion: The evidence demonstrating a survival advantage in favour TEVAR over medical therapy in un-TBAD means that with further research, particular trials and observational studies, TEVAR could become the gold-standard treatment option for un-TBAD patients.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is rapidly spreading across the world with the endorsement of the cardiological community(1) and the supporting results of randomised controlled trials (2,3). However, TAVI-related complication like aortic dissection, aortic valvular rupture, or left ventricle perforation are still potentially catastrophic (4).
The COVID-19 pandemic has remarkably impacted the hospital management and the profile of patients suffering from acute cardiovascular syndromes. Among them, acute infective endocarditis (AIE) represented a rather frequent part of these urgent/emergent procedures. The paper by Li and colleagues has clearly shown the higher risk features which patients with diagnosis of AIE presented at hospital admission during the first part (first and second waves) of the outbreak, often requiring challenging operations, but fortunately not associated with worse outcome if compared to results obtained prior to the SARS-2 pandemic. The report discussed herein presents several other aspects worth of discussion and comments, particularly in relation to hospital management and post-discharge outcome which certainly deserve to be highlighted, but also further investigations.
Objective: This study aimed to establish a risk assessment model to predict postoperative severe acute lung injury (ALI) risk in patients with acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD). Methods: Consecutive patients with ATAAD admitted to our hospital were included in this retrospective assessment and placed in the postoperative severe ALI and non-severe ALI groups based on the presence or absence of ALI within 72 h postoperatively (oxygen index (OI) ≤100 mmHg). Patients were then randomly divided into training and validation groups in a ratio of 8:2. Logistic regression analyses were used to statistically assess data and establish the prediction model. The prediction model’s effectiveness was evaluated via tenfold cross-validation of the validation group to facilitate construction of a nomogram. Results: After screening, 479 patients were included in the study: 132 (27.5%) in the postoperative severe ALI group and 347 (72.5%) in the postoperative non-severe ALI group. Based on logistics regression analyses, the following variables were included in the model: coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) ≥257.5 min, left atrium (LA) diameter ≥35.5 mm, hemoglobin ≤139.5 g/L, preCPB OI ≤100 mmHg, intensive care unit (ICU) OI ≤100 mmHg, left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT) ≥10.5 mm, and neutrophilic granulocyte percentage (NEUT) ≥0.824. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the modeling group was 0.805, and differences between observed and predicted values were not deemed statistically significant via the Hosmer–Lemeshow test (χ2=6.037, df=8, P=0.643). For the validation group, the area under the ROC curve was 0.778, and observed and predicted value differences were insignificant when assessed using the Hosmer–Lemeshow test (χ 2=3.3782, df=7; P=0.848). The average tenfold cross-validation score was 0.756. Conclusions: This study established a prediction model and developed a nomogram to determine the risk of postoperative severe ALI after ATAAD. Variables used in the model were easy to obtain clinically and the effectiveness of the model was good.
We present the case of a middle-aged man who developed an infective endocarditis of the tricuspid valve caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and associated with a very large vegetation (nearly 5 cm). Besides the quite unusual size of the vegetation, this report highlights that severe right-sided endocarditis can occur in the absence of classical risk factors (intravenous drug abuse, presence of a cardiac implantable electronic device or other intravascular device, and underlying right-sided cardiac anomaly) and that some cases of severe tricuspid endocarditis can be successfully treated by partial excision and patch repair.
Background: Left ventricular outflow tract pseudoaneurysm is a rare but potentially fatal complication of aortic valve replacement, infective endocarditis, and suture dehiscence. Left ventricular-aortic discontinuity is a severe and uncommon manifestation of IE. For patients who have a long-standing history of endocarditis, peri-annular lesions in the aortic valve may rupture, leading to the rare occurrence of complete, or total, left ventricular-aortic discontinuity. Methods: We present a case of complete postoperative left ventricular-aortic discontinuity and massive circumferential left ventricular outflow tract pseudoaneurysm discovered during a 3-month follow-up visit. Results: Post-operative cardiac CT of a patient demonstrated dehiscence of a recently placed surgical aortic valve from the left ventricular outflow tract, with massive circumferential pseudoaneurysm formation. Only a small remnant of the membranous interventricular septum connected the aortic root to the heart, informing the diagnosis of complete left ventricular-aortic discontinuity. Conclusion: The clinical presentation of a left ventricular outflow tract pseudoaneurysm with concomitant left ventricular-aortic discontinuity is commonly nonspecific or clinically silent; thus, it requires a high index of suspicion and use of multimodality imaging for diagnosis and management.
Background: Valve-sparing aortic root replacement such as the re-implantation (David) procedure is becoming increasingly popular. Despite the fact that the procedure is technically more complex, long-term studies demonstrated that excellent clinical outcomes in selected patients with durable repair are achievable. Benefits of minimal access cardiac surgery have stimulated enthusiasm in the use of this approach for valve-sparing aortic root replacement. Methods: We have reviewed available literature on the topic of valve-sparing aortic root replacement (David procedure) via minimally invasive approach through upper hemisternotomy in an attempt to assess current trends and to recognize potential advantages of this technique. Patient selection and preoperative work-up play important role in performing minimally invasive David procedure safely. Surgical technique is similar to the standard David procedure, with several exceptions, and is performed via upper hemisternotomy. Results and Conclusion: Evidence from non-randomized observational and comparative studies demonstrated excellent clinical outcomes of minimally invasive David procedure in selected patients with comparable perioperative mortality to the conventional technique. To date, elective David procedure with a minimal access technique has been performed in low- and intermediate-risk patients. We believe that minimally invasive David procedure could be particularly useful in young patients (Marfan syndrome, bicuspid AV) as it allows faster recovery with improved cosmesis. A decision to perform minimally invasive David procedure should be individualized to each patient and based on the experience of the team. Further large prospective randomized studies with long-term follow-up are still needed to confirm durability of minimal access technique.
Aortic valve and root replacements require an in-depth understanding of the aortic root and annulus. Both structures can be asymmetric at times, and this needs to be recognized and taken into consideration when peforming valve-sparing operations or other root-replacement procedures. Moreover, the geometry of the aortic annulus can be altered, and when performing an aortic root replacement this can distort the geometry of a neo-aortic valve for instance, and lead to valve dysfunction, which is difficult to reverse. We are describing an altered aortic annulus, which required modification through annulus elevation before proceeding with aortic root replacement with a graft-reinforced pulmonary-autograft.
Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) consists of left internal thoracic artery (LITA) graft to the left anterior descending (LAD) artery and transcatheter revascularization of the non-LAD stenosis in specific settings to achieve complete coronary revascularization. Technique to perform the LITA to LAD graft has ranged from median sternotomy with cardiopulmonary bypass to robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary bypass surgery using beating heart revascularization.
The gold standard for the treatment of pure aortic insufficiency (PAI) is surgical valve repair or replacement.1 With the newest transcatheter heart valve technologies and the accumulating years of experience of heart teams with the current transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) prostheses, implanters have push the envelope with off-label use of those valves designed and approved for aortic stenosis, in patients with pure aortic insufficiency especially those at higher risks or for compassionate use.3 However, new prostheses are currently under investigation in clinical use and evidences are provided on the safety and efficacy of those latter. It will be discussed in this commentary, the actual clinical evidences and the use of transcatheter heart valves, in and off label, for the treatment of pure aortic insufficiency.
Redo aortic valve surgery for failure of a previously implanted valve is always challenging. In case of small-sized implanted valves, the use of a balloon-expanding Sapien-3 valve can enhance the final effective orifice area, avoid complex annulus enlargement techniques, and can reduce operative time and morbidities. We describe a case where after explanting a failed 19mm St. Jude mechanical aortic valve and further deployment of a 23mm Sapien-3 valve, the left coronary ostia was obstructed by the skirt of the transcatheter prosthesis. After careful removal of a little part of the skirt, we were able to restore the coronary flow and the patient had a favorable outcome.
Background The use of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for the management of uncomplicated type B aortic dissection (un-TBAD) remains controversial. There is a lack of consensus over whether pre-emptive TEVAR should be carried out in patients with un-TBAD at risk of progression to complicated TBAD. We present a review of current evidence and seek to suggest criteria where endovascular intervention in un-TBAD may prove beneficial relative to pharmacotherapy alone. Methods and Materials PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched using terms including: type B aortic dissection, risk factors, medical therapy, TEVAR, false lumen expansion, and mortality. Papers were selected based on title and abstract. Results Optimal medical therapy remains the mainstay treatment for patients with un-TBAD, however patients with un-TBAD present with varying degrees of disease progression risk. Factors such as age, aortic morphology, history of connective tissue disorders, false lumen thrombosis, and aortic branch involvement may potentiate progression from un-TBAD to complicated TBAD. Short- and long-term outcomes associated with TEVAR for TBAD remain promising. Conclusion Pre-emptive TEVAR may be beneficial in patients with un-TBAD presenting with the above factors, however further prospective research into the optimal timing for TEVAR in un-TBAD is required.
Bilateral lung transplant for pulmonary hypertension with pulmonary artery aneurysmBerhane Worku MD1,2, Charles Mack MD1,3, Ivancarmine Gambardella MD1,2New York Presbyterian Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York NY 10021New York Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn NY 11215New York Presbyterian Queens Hospital, Queens NY 11335Corresponding AuthorBerhane Worku MD Brooklyn Methodist HospitalDepartment of Cardiothoracic Surgery506 6th StreetBrooklyn, NY 11215718-780-7700Bmw2002@med.cornell.eduPulmonary artery aneurysms (PAA) may be secondary to congenital cardiac defects such as a patent ductus arteriousus (PDA), atrial septal defect, or ventricular septal defect. They may also occur secondary to infection or connective tissue disease or they may be idiopathic in nature. Repair is undertaken to prevent the sequelae of rupture or dissection, although the specific size criteria at which repair is recommended remains controversial. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) may also lead to PAA, in which case isolated repair is not recommended. Heart-lung transplant has classically been the treatment of choice for PH with PAA, especially when associated with congenital heart defects, right ventricular dysfunction, and pulmonic valve regurgitation.In the setting of PH with PAA and correctable cardiac defects, bilateral lung transplant (BLT) has been described. Concurrent PAA repair is required, and several techniques exist to allow for this. In the current issue of the Journal of Cardiac Surgery, Doi et. al. offer a review of PH with PAA, with a focus on strategies to allow for BLT and PAA repair, hence avoiding the need for HLT. They describe a case of a patient with PH secondary to a PDA and a 9cm PAA who underwent BLT and PAA repair. The donor descending aorta and a bovine pericardial tube was used to reconstruct the recipient main and right PA, respectively. The patient suffered from persistently elevated PA pressures postoperatively due to a kink in the anastomosis between the neo-main PA (donor descending aorta) and the neo-right PA (bovine pericardial tube) requiring surgical revision, but the patient otherwise made an excellent recovery1.The benefit with BLT (rather than HLT) stems from limitations in donor supply which may result in unacceptably long wait times and reduced waitlist survival in patients awaiting HLT. As right ventricular function typically improves after BLT for PH, the donor heart from a HLT bloc may be better served to another patient with terminal cardiac failure. A variety of techniques have been described to allow for repair of massive PAAs at the time of BLT. Harvesting of the entire donor PA to allow replacement of the PAA has been described and is feasible when the donor heart is unsuitable for transplantation2,3. When the donor main PA is unavailable for harvesting, pulmonary arterioplasty and replacement with donor descending aorta have been described at the time of BLT4-7. After resection of the PAA, the proximal donor aorta is anastamosed to the proximal PA with the distal aorta oriented towards the right lung. The distal donor aorta is anastamosed to the donor right PA. The innominate and left carotid orifices can be used for anastomoses to the donor left PA5,6. Extension of a short donor left PA with an autologous pericardial tube has been described5. Similarly, extension of a short donor right PA with a bovine pericardial tube is described in the current report1.Pulmonary valve (PV) regurgitation may occur secondary to annular dilation from the PAA. PV replacement has been described, including sutureless valve implantation with valves intended for percutaneous deployment4. Durability remains a concern, and valve sparing repair techniques (commisuroplasty) have also been described3. When the donor heart is not being harvested, BLT with procurement of the donor right ventricular outflow graft has been described8. HLT always remains a reasonable option in the setting of extremely massive PAA associated with severe PV regurgitation and right ventricular dysfunction, assuming adequate donor availability and ability of the recipient to tolerate the longer wait time9.Recovery of right ventricular function and tricuspid regurgitation after BLT for PH has been documented, supporting the shift from HLT to BLT for this entity. In the setting of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, severe pulmonary edema and hypoxia can be seen after BLT for PH as the LV is suddenly loaded, and in such a scenario ECMO has been utilized to allow time for LV remodeling. Various centers may prefer HLT over BLT for these cardiac consequences of prolonged PH10. In the absence of these complicating factors, BLT should be considered for PH in otherwise appropriate candidates. BLT for PH with PAA is likely best managed with harvesting the donor main PA when the donor heart is not being considered for harvest. When the donor PA is not available, the decision to attempt the abovementioned strategies for PAA repair such as neo-PA creation with donor aorta and the associated prolongation of donor ischemic time must be weighed against exposing the patient to elevated waitlist mortality while waiting for an acceptable heart-lung bloc to become available. Transplant center expertise and regional differences in heart and lung donor utilization rates will likely a relevant factor to consider when selecting the optimal strategy for each patient.REFERENCESDoi A, Gajera J, Niewodowski D, Gangahanumaiah S, Whitford H, Snell G, Kaye D, Joseph T, McGriffin D. Surgical management of giant pulmonary artery aneurysms in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. J Card Surg; in press]Schwarz S, Benazzo A, Prosch H, Jaksch P, Klepetko W, Hoetzenecker K. Lung transplantation for pulmonary hypertension with giant pulmonary artery aneurysm. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020;159:2543-50Shayan H, Sareyyupoglu B, Shigemura N, Thacker J, Bermudez C, Toyoda Y. Lung transplant, double valve repair, and pulmonary artery aneurysm resection. Ann Thorac Surg 2012;93:e3-5Pelenghi S, Primiceri C, Belliato M, Ghio S, Scelsi L, Totaro P. Is it time for a paradigm shift: Should double-lung transplant be considered the treatment of choice for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and giant pulmonary aneurysm? J Card Surg 2021;36:2996-2999Noda M, Okada Y, Saiki Y, Sado T, Hoshikawa Y, Endo C, Sakurada A, Maeda S, Oishi H, Kondo T. Reconstruction of pulmonary artery with donor aorta and autopericardium in lung transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg 2013;96:e17-9Force SD, Lau CL, Moazami N, Trulock EP, Patterson GA. Bilateral lung transplantation and pulmonary artery reconstruction in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a giant pulmonary artery aneurysm. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003;126:864-6.Oda H, Hamaji M, Motoyama H, Ikeda T, Minatoya K, Nakajima D, Chen-Yoshikawa TF, Date H. Use of a three-dimensional model in lung transplantation for a patient with giant pulmonary aneurysm. Ann Thorac Surg 2020;109:e183-5Zanotti G, Hartwig MG, Davis RD. A simplified technique for pulmonary artery aneurysm repair in a lung transplant recipient with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2013;145: 295-6Eadington T, Santhanakrishnan K, Venkateswaran. Heart-lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and giant pulmonary artery aneurysm – case report. J Cardiothorac Surg 2020;15:169Budev MM, Yun JJ. Advanced circulatory support and lung transplantation in pulmonary hypertension.