The capacity of some yeasts to extract energy from single sugars, generating CO2 and ethanol (=fermentation), even in the presence of oxygen is known as the Crabtree effect. This phenomenon represents an important adaptation as it allowed the utilization of the ecological niche given by modern fruits, an abundant source of food that emerged in the terrestrial environment in the Cretaceous. However, identifying the evolutionary events that triggered fermentative capacity in Crabtree positive species is challenging, as microorganisms do not leave fossil evidence. Thus, key innovations should be inferred based only on traits measured under culture conditions. Here, we reanalyzed data form a common-garden experiment where several proxies of fermentative capacity were recorded in Crabtree positive and negative species, representing yeast’s phylogenetic diversity. In particular, we applied the “lasso-OU” algorithm which detects points of adaptive shifts, provided trait values representing a given performance measure. We tested whether multiple events or a single event explains the actual fermentative capacity of yeasts. According to the lasso-OU procedure, evolutionary changes in the three proxies of fermentative capacity that we considered (i.e., glycerol production, ethanol yield and respiratory quotient) are consistent with a single evolutionary episode (a whole-genomic duplication, WGD), instead of a series of small genomic rearrangements. Thus, the WGD appears as the key event behind the diversification of fermentative yeasts, which by increasing gene dosage and maximized their capacity of energy extraction for exploiting the new ecological niche provided by single sugars.
Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae) Mart has high ecological and economic importance providing food resources for more than 58 species of birds and 20 species of mammals, including humans. E. edulis is the second most explored non-timber product from Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Due to overexploitation and destruction of habitats, E. edulis is threatened by extinction. E. edulis populations have large morphological variations, with individuals having green, red or yellow leaf sheath. However, no study has related phenotypic distinctions between populations and their levels of genetic structure. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the diversity and genetic structure of different E. edulis morphotypes. We sampled 250 adult individuals in eight populations with the different morphotypes. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we access genetic diversity through population genetic parameters calculated in the GenAlex program and the diveRsity package in R. We used the Wilcoxon test to verify population bottlenecks and the genetic distance of Nei and Bayesian analysis for genetic clusters. The eight populations showed low allele richness, low heterogeneity observed and high inbreeding values (f). In addition, six of the eight populations experienced genetic bottlenecks, which would partly explain the low genetic diversity in populations. Cluster analysis identified two clusters (K=2), with green morphotype genetically distinguishing from yellow and red morphotypes. Thus, we show, for the first time, a strong genetic structure among E. edulis morphotypes even for geographically close populations.
Competitive interactions between distantly related clades could cause complementary diversity patterns of these clades over large spatial scales. One such example might be ants and birds in the eastern Himalaya; ants are very common at low elevations but almost absent at mid-elevations where the abundance of other arthropods and insectivorous bird diversity peaks. Here, we ask if ants at low elevations could compete with birds for arthropod prey. Specifically, we studied the impact of the Asian weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina), a common aggressive ant at low elevations. Diet analysis using molecular methods demonstrate extensive diet overlap between weaver ants and songbirds at both low and mid-elevations. Trees without weaver ants have greater non-ant arthropod abundance and leaf damage. Experimental removal of weaver ants results in an increase in the abundance of non-ant arthropods. Notably, numbers of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera were most affected by removal experiments and were prominent components of both bird and weaver ant diets. Our results suggest that songbirds and weaver ants might potentially compete with each other for arthropod prey at low elevations, thereby contributing to lower insectivorous bird diversity at low elevations in eastern Himalaya. Competition with ants may shape vertebrate diversity patterns across broad biodiversity gradients.
1. Bitterlings are small freshwater fish that use long ovipositors to place eggs in host mussels and have morphological adaptations to increase larval survival. The most well-known adaptations are the minute tubercles on the skin surface of larvae, which are developed in early-stage larvae with weak swimming ability and disappear in free-swimming larvae before they leave the host mussel. 2. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of the developmental stages of Rhodeus pseudosericeus larvae, their morphological and physiological characteristics, their migration inside mussels, and the development of minute tubercle are presented as direct evidence of the morphological function of the minute tubercles. These tubercles began to develop 1 day after hatching (formation stage), grew for 2–5 days (growth stage), reached the peak height after 6–7 days (peak stage), abruptly reduced in height after 8–10 days (abrupt reduction stage), and went through a final gradual reduction (reduction stage) until completely disappearing 27 days after hatching (disappearance stage). 3. The larvae remained in the mussels’ interlamellar space of the gill demibranchs until 10 days after hatching, and began to migrate to mussels’ suprabranchial cavity 11 days after hatching. At this time, the larvae had clear components of heart rate and caudal fin began to develop. At 24 days after hatching, the minute tubercles had almost disappeared, and some individuals were observed swimming out of the mussels. 4. The experiment results herein presented prove that the minute tubercles are a first direct evidence that the bitterling larvae are morphologically adapted to prevent premature ejection from the mussel.
Resource polymorphism is a ubiquitous phenomenon in vertebrates and may represent a critical intermediate stage in speciation. Freshwater lakes in high-altitude areas represent a natural system for understanding resource polymorphism in fishes in diverse lacustrine environments and a few co-distributed species. We report resource polymorphism in a cyprinid fish, Schizopygopsis thermalis, in Lake Amdo Tsonak Co, a headwater lake in the upper Salween River system. Two morphs, planktivorous and benthivorous, were identified according to geometric morphological and traditional linear traits. The planktivorous morph exhibits a longer head and lower jaw, larger asymptotic standard length (L∞), lower growth rate (k) and higher growth performance index (φ) than the benthivorous morph. With respect to descriptive traits, the planktivorous morph possesses a terminal mouth and a highly developed mucus cavity in the cheek and chin, while the benthivorous morph is characterized by an inferiorly positioned mouth with a sharpened horny edge on the lower jaw. Our results indicate that distinct pelagic-benthic resources and low interspecific competition in the lake drove the initial differentiation of the two morphs and that partial spatial reproductive isolation might maintain and reinforce the differences between them.
Maintenance of a portfolio of adaptive alleles may provide resilience of populations to natural environmental variability. We used Pacific ocean perch (POP; Sebastes alutus) to test for the maintenance of adaptive variation across overlapping generations. POP are a long-lived species characterized by widespread larval dispersal in their first year and a longevity of over 100 years. In order to understand how early marine dispersal affects POP survival and population structure, we used Restriction Site Associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) to obtain 11,146 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 401 young-of-the-year (YOY) POP collected during surveys conducted in 2014 (19 stations) and 2015 (4 stations) in the eastern Gulf of Alaska. Population clustering analysis showed that the POP samples represented four distinct ancestral populations mixed throughout the sampling area. Based on prior work on larval dispersal of POP, these larvae are most likely from distinct parturition locations that are mixing during their pelagic dispersal life stage. Latent factor mixed models revealed that POP larvae face significant selection during their first year at sea, which were specific to the year of their birth. Thus each adult cohort’s genetic composition is heavily influenced by the environmental conditions experienced during their first year at sea. Long-lived species relying on broadcast spawning strategies may therefore be uniquely resilient to environmental variability by maintaining a portfolio of cohort-specific adaptive genotypes, and age truncation due to overfishing of older cohorts may have detrimental effect on the population viability.
Cerasus serrulata (Rosaceae) is an important flowering cherry resource. It is almost the most widely distributed species in the genus, mainly included in the subtropical and temperate China, which enables the geographic evolutionary pattern to be a representative. Besides, the morphological traits are greatly varied especially in ornamental characters. All of these makes Cerrasus serrulata a valuable research object. Thus, phylogeographic analysis was conducted to apprehend the spatial pattern and evolutionary history, which can also add insights into the phylogeography of the genus Cerasus and plants in subtropical and temperate China, as well as to deeper understand the genetic diversity and structure of the germplasm to make better and more effective utilization. A total of 327 individuals of 18 populations were collected. Three cpDNA fragments (matK, trnD-E, trnS-G) and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were utilized. The result showed a high genetic diversity both in species level and population level of Cerrasus serrulata. The high genetic differentiation among populations and the existence of phylogeographic structure in whole were detected. In addition, no bottleneck was identified. The the distribution pattern and center were formed before the LGM. Two geographical lineages were inferred. One was confined to Qingling Mountain and Taihang Mt. The other was from the Wuling Mt to Lu-Huang Mt, and then went northeast to the coast of Asia. Besides, taxonomic treatments of the Cerasus serrulata complex were reconsidered.
Plants employ a diverse set of defense mechanisms to mediate interactions with insects and fungi. These relationships can leave lasting impacts on host plant genome structure such as rapid expansion of gene families through tandem duplication. These genomic signatures provide important clues about the complexities of plant/biotic stress interactions and evolution. We used a pseudo-backcross hybrid family to identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) controlling associations between Populus trees and several common Populus diseases and insects. Using whole genome sequences from each parent, we identified candidate genes that may mediate these interactions. Candidates were partially validated using mass spectrometry to identify corresponding QTL for defensive compounds. We detected significant QTL for two interacting fungal pathogens and three insects. The QTL intervals contained candidate genes potentially involved in physical and chemical mechanisms of host-plant resistance and susceptibility. In particular, we identified overlapping QTLs for a phenolic glycoside and Phyllocolpa sawfly abundance. There was also significant enrichment of recent tandem duplications in the genomic intervals of the native parent, but not the exotic parent. Tandem gene duplication may be an important mechanism for rapid response to biotic stressors, enabling trees with long juvenile periods to reach maturity despite many coevolving biotic stressors.
Spatial and temporal distribution of seabird transiting and foraging at sea is an important consideration for marine conservation planning. Using at-sea observations of seabirds (n = 317), collected during the breeding season from 2012 to 2016, we built boosted regression tree (BRT) models to identify relationships between numerically dominant seabird species (red-footed booby, brown noddy, white tern and wedge-tailed shearwater), geomorphology, oceanographic variability, and climate oscillation in the Chagos Archipelago. We documented positive relationships between red-footed booby and wedge-tailed shearwater abundance with the strength in the Indian Ocean Dipole, as represented by the Dipole Mode Index (6.7% and 23.7% contribution respectively). The abundance of red-footed boobies, brown noddies and white terns declined abruptly with greater distance to island (17.6%, 34.1% and 41.1% contribution respectively). We further quantified the effects of proximity to rat-free and rat-invaded islands on seabird distribution at sea, and identify breaking point distribution thresholds. We identified areas of increased abundance at sea and habitat use-age under a scenario where rats are eradicated from invaded nearby islands and recolonised by seabirds. Following rat eradication, abundance at sea of red-footed booby, brown noddy, and white terns increased by 14%, 17% and 3% respectively, with no important increase detected for shearwaters. Our results have implication for seabird conservation and island restoration. Climate oscillations may cause shifts in seabird distribution, possibly through changes in regional productivity and prey distribution. Invasive species eradications and subsequent island recolonization can lead to greater access for seabirds to areas at-sea, due to increased foraging or transiting through, potentially leading to distribution gains and increased competition. Our approach predicting distribution after successful eradications enables anticipatory threat-mitigation in these areas, minimising competition between colonies and thereby maximising the risk of success and the conservation impact of eradication programmes.
Correlative evidence suggests that high problem-solving and foraging abilities in a mate are associated with direct fitness advantages, so it would benefit females to prefer problem-solving males. Recent work has also shown that females of several bird species who directly observe males prefer those that can solve a novel foraging task over those that cannot. In addition to or instead of direct observation of cognitive skills, many species utilize assessment signals when choosing a mate. Here we test whether females can select a problem-solving male over a non-solving male when presented only with a signal known to be used in mate assessment: song. Using an operant conditioning assay, we compared female zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) preference for the songs of males that could quickly solve a novel foraging task to the songs of males that could not solve the task. Females were never housed with the test subject males whose song they heard, and the only information provided about the males was their song. We found that females elicited more songs of problem-solving males than of non-solvers, indicating that song can contain information about a male’s ability to solve a novel foraging task and that naïve females prefer the songs of problem-solving males.
Phenotypic plasticity can allow animals to adapt their behaviour, such as their mating effort, to their social and sexual environment. However, this relies on the individual receiving accurate and reliable cues of the environmental conditions. This can be achieved via the receipt of multi-component cues, which may provide redundancy and robustness. Male Drosophila melanogaster detect presence of rivals via combinations of any two or more redundant cue components (sound, smell and touch) and respond by extending their subsequent mating duration, which is associated with higher reproductive success. Although alternative combinations of cues of rival presence have previously been found to elicit equivalent increases in mating duration and offspring production, their redundancy in securing success under sperm competition has not previously been tested. Here, we explicitly test this by exposing male D. melanogaster to alternative combinations of rival cues and examining reproductive success in both the presence and absence of sperm competition. The results supported previous findings of redundancy of cues in terms of behavioural responses. However, there was no evidence of reproductive benefits accrued by extending mating duration in response to rivals. The lack of identifiable fitness benefits of longer mating under these conditions, both in the presence and absence of sperm competition, contrasted with some previous results, but could be explained by: 1) damage sustained from aggressive interactions with rivals leading to reduced ability to increase ejaculate investment, 2) presence of features of the social environment, such as male and female mating status, that obscured the fitness benefits of longer mating, 3) decoupling of behavioural investment with fitness benefits.
Recently diverged population in the early stages of speciation offer an opportunity to understand mechanisms of isolation and their relative contribution. Drosophila willistoni is a tropical species with broad distribution from Argentina to the southern United States, including the Caribbean islands. We have recently documented a postzygotic barrier between Central America, North America, and the northern Caribbean islands (D. w. willistoni) from South American and the southern Caribbean islands (D. w. winge). Here we identify premating isolation between strains regardless of their subspecies status, with the effect being dependent on environment. We find no evidence of postmating prezygotic isolation and proceed to characterize hybrid male sterility among the subspecies. Sterile male hybrids transfer an ejaculate that is devoid of sperm but causes elongation and expansion of the female uterus. In sterile male hybrids, bulging of the seminal vesicle appears to impede the movement of the sperm towards the sperm pump, where sperm normally mixes with accessory glands products. Our results highlight a unique form of hybrid male sterility in Drosophila that is driven by a mechanical impediment to transfer sperm rather than by an abnormality of the sperm itself. Interestingly, this form of sterility is reminiscent of a form of infertility (azoospermia) that is caused by lack of sperm in the semen due to blockages that impede the sperm from reaching the ejaculate.
Plant adaptation to high altitudes has long been a substantial focus of ecological and evolutionary research. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying such adaptation remain poorly understood. Here, we address this issue by sampling, genotyping, and comparing populations of Tibetan poplar, Populus szechuanica var. tibetica, distributed from low (~2000 m) to high altitudes (~3000 m) of Sejila Mountain on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Population structure analyses allow clear classification of two groups according to their altitudinal distributions. However, in contrast to the genetic variation within each population, differences between the two populations only explain a small portion of the total genetic variation (3.64%). We identified asymmetrical gene flow from high- to low-altitude populations. Integrating with population genomic and landscape genomic manner, we detected a hot spot region containing ten genes under natural selection and associated with five environmental factors. These genes participate in abiotic stress resistance and regulating the reproductive process. Our results provide insight into the genetic mechanisms underlying high-altitude adaptation in Tibetan poplar.
Glyphosate is the world’s most widely used herbicide. The commercial success of this molecule is due to its non-selectivity and its action, which would supposedly target specific biosynthetic pathways found mainly in plants. Multiple studies have however provided evidence for high sensitivity of many non-target species to glyphosate and/or to formulations (glyphosate mixed with surfactants). This herbicide, found at significant levels in aquatic systems through surface runoffs, impacts life history traits and immune parameters of several aquatic invertebrates’ species. Some of these species are vectors of diseases, one of the most important of which is the mosquito. Mosquitoes, from hatching to emergence, are exposed to aquatic chemical contaminants. In this study, we first compared the toxicity of pure glyphosate to the toxicity of glyphosate-based formulations for the main vector of avian malaria in Europe, Culex pipiens mosquito. Then we evaluated, for the first time, how field realistic dose of glyphosate interacts with larval nutritional stress to alter mosquito life history traits and susceptibility to avian malaria parasite infection. Our results show that exposure of larvae to field-realistic doses of glyphosate, pure or in formulation, did not affect larval survival rate, adult size and female fecundity. One of our two experimental blocks showed, however, that exposure to glyphosate decreased development time and reduced mosquito infection probability by malaria parasite. Interestingly the effect on malaria infection was lost when the larvae were also subjected to a nutritional stress, probably due to a lower ingestion of glyphosate.
Environmental DNA (eDNA) is used for monitoring the occurrence of freshwater organisms. Various studies show a relation between the amount of eDNA detected and target organism abundance, thus providing a potential proxy for reconstructing population densities. However, environmental factors such as water temperature and microbial activity are known to affect the amount of eDNA present as well In this study, we use controlled aquarium experiments using Gammarus pulex L. (Amphipoda) to investigate the relationship between the amount of detectable eDNA through time, pH, and levels of organic material. We found eDNA to degrade faster when organic material was added to the aquarium water, but that pH had no significant effect. We infer that eDNA contained inside cells and mitochondria is extra resilient against degradation, though this may not reflect actual presence of target species. These results indicate that, although estimation of population density might be possible using eDNA, measured eDNA concentration could, in the future, be corrected for local environmental conditions in order to ensure accurate comparisons.
1. Terrestrial plant populations located at the margins of species’ distributions often display reduced sexual reproduction and an increased reliance on asexual reproduction. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is that the decline is associated with environmental effects on the energetic costs to produce reproductive organs. 2. In order to clarify the changing processes of sexual reproduction along an altitudinal gradient, we investigated the sexual reproductive parameters, such as the number of sporophytes and gametangia, in Racomitrium lanuginosum, a dioicous moss found on Mt. Fuji. Matured sporophytes were present only below 3000 m, and the number of sporophytes per shoot tended to be lower at higher altitudes. 3. The numbers of male inflorescences per shoot and antheridia per inflorescence and shoot significantly decreased with increasing altitude. In contrast, the numbers of female inflorescences per shoot and archegonia per inflorescence and shoot varied little across altitudes. 4. Synthesis. Our results suggest that the success of sexual reproduction in R. lanuginosum is restricted at higher altitudes on Mt. Fuji by decreases in male gametangia and the subsequent chance of fertilization. These differences between males and females may be caused by differences in the cost of production and development of gametangia, sensitivity to environmental stresses (low air temperature, shortened growth period, and environmental conditions in winter), and phenological patterns at higher altitudes.
Aim: Threats faced by narrowly distributed endemic plant species in the face of the Earth’s sixth mass extinction and climate change exposure are especially severe for taxa on islands. We investigated the current and projected distribution and range changes of Cochemiea halei, an island endemic cactus. This taxon is of conservation concern, currently listed as vulnerable on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List and as a species of special concern under Mexican federal law. The goals of this study are to 1). identify the correlations between climate variables and current suitable habitat for C. halei; 2). determine if the species is a serpentine endemic or has a facultative relationship with ultramafic soils; 3). predict range changes of the species based on climate change scenarios. Location: The island archipelago in Bahía Magdalena on the Pacific coast, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Methods: We used temperature and precipitation variables at 30 arcsecond resolution and soil type, employing multiple species distribution modeling methods, to identify important climate and soil conditions driving current habitat suitability. The best model of current suitability is used to predict possible effects of four climate change scenarios based on best case to worst case representative concentration pathways, with projected climate data from two general circulation models, over two time periods. Main conclusions: The occurrence of the species is found to be strongly correlated with ultramafic soils. The most important climate predictor for habitat suitability is annual temperature range. The species is predicted to undergo range contractions from 21% to 53%, depending on the severity and duration of exposure to climate change. The broader implications for a wide range of narrowly adapted, threatened and endemic plant species indicate an urgent need for threat assessment based on habitat suitability and climate change modeling.
Functional traits are becoming more common in the analysis of marine zooplankton community dynamics associated with environmental change. We use zooplankton groups with common functional properties to assess long-term trends in the zooplankton caused by certain environmental conditions in a highly eutrophicated gulf. Time series of zooplankton traits were collected since 1960 in the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea and were analysed using general additive model, principal component analysis, and multivariate model. One of the most significant changes was the considerable increase in the amount of the zooplankton functional groups (FGR) in coastal springtime communities, and dominance shifts from more complex to simpler organism groups – cladocerans and rotifers. The results also show that the functional trait organism complexity (body size) decreased considerably due to cladoceran and rotifer increase following elevated water temperature. Salinity and oxygen had negligible effects on the zooplankton community.