Severe bronchospasm during cardiopulmonary bypass is an unusual but potentially fatal event. No literature has previously reported such an event observed during surgery for type A aortic dissection. Herein, we report on a case of severe bronchospasm following cardiopulmonary bypass during aortic surgery for type A aortic dissection. Bronchospasm did not respond to any conventional therapy, necessitating extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation thus serves as an alternative and effective therapy for refractory bronchospasm.