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Role of nanostructures in allergy: adverse effects, diagnostics, and treatment
  • +2
  • Cristobalina Mayorga,
  • Ezequiel Perez-Inestrosa,
  • Javier Rojo,
  • Marta Ferrer,
  • Maria Isabel Montañez
Cristobalina Mayorga
IBIMA-Regional University Hospital of Malaga
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Ezequiel Perez-Inestrosa
Malaga University
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Javier Rojo
Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas (IIQ), CSIC - Universidad de Sevilla
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Marta Ferrer
University Clinic of Navarra
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Maria Isabel Montañez
IBIMA-Regional University Hospital of Málaga
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Peer review status:IN REVISION

01 Jul 2020Submitted to Allergy
02 Jul 2020Assigned to Editor
02 Jul 2020Submission Checks Completed
04 Jul 2020Reviewer(s) Assigned
19 Jul 2020Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
21 Jul 2020Editorial Decision: Revise Minor

Abstract

Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers. It has led to the development of nanomaterials, which behave very differently compared with materials with larger scales and can be applied in a wide range of applications in biomedicine. The physical and chemical properties of materials of such small compounds depend mainly on the size, shape, composition, and functionalisation of the system. Nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, liposomes, polymers, dendrimers, nanogels, among others, can be nanoengineeried for controlling all parameters, including their functionalisation with ligands, which provide the desired interaction with the immunological system. However, undesired issues related to their toxicity and hypersensitivity responses have impeded more rapid health applications. Through interactions with the immune system, some of these nanostructures show promising applications as vaccines and diagnostics tools. Dendrimeric Antigens, Nanoallergens, and nanoparticles are potential tools for the in vitro diagnosis of allergic reactions. Glycodendrimers, liposomes, polymers, and nanoparticles have shown interesting applications in immunotherapy. There are wide panels of structures accessible, and controlling their physico-chemical properties would allow the obtainment of safer and more efficient compounds for clinical applications goals, either in diagnosis or treatment.