Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers. It has led to the development of nanomaterials, which behave very differently compared with materials with larger scales and can be applied in a wide range of applications in biomedicine. The physical and chemical properties of materials of such small compounds depend mainly on the size, shape, composition, and functionalisation of the system. Nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, liposomes, polymers, dendrimers, nanogels, among others, can be nanoengineeried for controlling all parameters, including their functionalisation with ligands, which provide the desired interaction with the immunological system. However, undesired issues related to their toxicity and hypersensitivity responses have impeded more rapid health applications. Through interactions with the immune system, some of these nanostructures show promising applications as vaccines and diagnostics tools. Dendrimeric Antigens, Nanoallergens, and nanoparticles are potential tools for the in vitro diagnosis of allergic reactions. Glycodendrimers, liposomes, polymers, and nanoparticles have shown interesting applications in immunotherapy. There are wide panels of structures accessible, and controlling their physico-chemical properties would allow the obtainment of safer and more efficient compounds for clinical applications goals, either in diagnosis or treatment.
Background: Analysis of cross-reactivity is necessary for prescribing safe cephalosporins for penicillin allergic patients. Amoxicillin (AX) is the betalactam most often involved in immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHRs), and cefadroxil (CX) the most likely cephalosporin to cross-react with AX, since they share the same R1 side chain, unlike cefuroxime (CX), with a structurally different R1. We aimed to analyse cross-reactivity with CX and CO in patients with confirmed IHRs to AX, including sIgE recognition to AX, CX, CO, and novel synthetic determinants of CX. Methods: Fifty-four patients with confirmed IHRs to AX based on skin test (ST) and/or drug provocation test (DPT) were included. sIgE to AX and benzylpenicillin was determined by Radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Two potential determinants of CX, involving intact or modified R1 structure, with open betalactam ring, were synthesised and sIgE evaluated by RAST inhibition assay. Results: Tolerance to CX (Group A) was observed in 64.8% cases and cross-reactivity in 35.2% cases (Group B). Cross-reactivity with CO was only found in 1.8% cases from Group B. ST to CX showed a negative predictive value of 88.2%. RAST inhibition assays showed higher recognition to CX as well as to both synthetic determinants (66% of positive cases) in Group B. Conclusions: Cross-reactivity with CX in AX allergic patients is 35%, being ST not enough for prediction. R1, although critical for recognition, is not the unique factor. The synthetic determinants of CX, 1-(HOPhG-Ser-Bu) and 2-(pyrazinone) are promising tools for determining in vitro cross-reactivity to CX in AX allergic patients.
Background. Lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) has been widely used to evaluate non-immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (NIDHRs). However, the lack of standardisation and the low sensitivity have limited its routine diagnostic use. The drug presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) and the assessment of proliferation on effector cells have shown promising results. Flow-cytometry-based methods can help apply these improvements. We aimed to assess the added value of using drug-primed-DCs and the determination of the proliferative response of different lymphocyte subpopulations in NIDHRs. Methods. Patients with confirmed NIDHR were evaluated by both conventional (C-LTT) and with drug-primed-DCs LTT (dDC-LTT) analysing the proliferative response in T-cells and other effector cell subpopulations by using the fluorescent molecule, carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. Results. The C-LTT showed a significantly lower sensitivity (33.3%) compared with dDC-LTT (65.2%), which was confirmed analysing each particular clinical entity: SJS-TEN (62.5% vs 87.5%), MPE (14.3% vs 41.7%), and AGEP (33% vs 80%). When including the effector cell subpopulations involved in each clinical entity, CD3++CD4+Th1 cells in SJS-TEN, CD3++CD4+Th1+NK cells in MPE, and CD3++NK cells in AGEP, we could significantly increase the sensitivity of the in vitro test to 100%, 66.6%, and 100%, respectively. With an overall sensitivity of 87% and 85% of specificity in NIDHR. Conclusions. The use of a flow-cytometry-based test, DCs as drug presenting cells, and focussing on effector cell subpopulations for each clinical entity significantly improved the drug-specific proliferative response in NIDHRs with a unique cellular in vitro test.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory tract infection caused by a novel human coronavirus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, leads to a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic cases to patients with mild and severe symptoms, with or without pneumonia. Given the huge influence caused by the overwhelming COVID-19 pandemic affecting over three million people worldwide, a wide spectrum of drugs is considered for the treatment in the concept of repurposing and off-label use. There is no knowledge about the diagnosis and clinical management of the drug hypersensitivity reactions that can potentially occur during the disease. This review brings together all the published information about the diagnosis and management of drug hypersensitivity reactions due to current and candidate off-label drugs and highlights relevant recommendations. Furthermore, it gathers all the dermatologic manifestations reported during the disease for guiding the clinicians to establish a better differential diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions in the course of the disease.