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A new symbiotic lineage related to Neisseria and Snodgrassella arises from the dynamic and diverse microbiomes in sucking lice
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  • Jana Říhová,
  • Giampiero Batani,
  • Sonia Rodríguez-Ruano,
  • Jana Martinu,
  • Eva Novakova,
  • Václav Hypša
Jana Říhová
University of South Bohemia Faculty of Science
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Giampiero Batani
University of South Bohemia Faculty of Science
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Sonia Rodríguez-Ruano
University of South Bohemia Faculty of Science
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Jana Martinu
Jihoceska Univerzita v Ceskych Budejovicich
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Eva Novakova
University of South Bohemia Faculty of Science
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Václav Hypša
University of South Bohemia Faculty of Science
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Abstract

Phylogenetic diversity of symbiotic bacteria in sucking lice suggests that lice have experienced a complex history of symbiont acquisition, loss, and replacement during their evolution. By combining metagenomics and amplicon screening across several populations of two louse genera (Polyplax and Hoplopleura) we describe a novel louse symbiont lineage related to Neisseria and Snodgrassella, and show its independent origin within dynamic lice microbiomes. While the genomes of these symbionts are highly similar in both lice genera, their respective distributions and status within lice microbiomes indicate that they have different functions and history. In Hoplopleura acanthopus, the Neisseria-related bacterium is a dominant obligate symbiont universally present across several host’s populations, and seems to be replacing a presumably older and more degenerated obligate symbiont. In contrast, the Polyplax microbiomes are dominated by the obligate symbiont Legionella polyplacis, with the Neisseria-related bacterium co-occurring only in some samples and with much lower abundance.