We describe two cases of favorable and unexpected recovery in positive patients with COVID-19, suffering from multiorgan comorbidity and already assisted with the left ventricular assist device. We have observed that, although in the presence of more comorbidities, when the maintenance of a valid support of the cardiovascular function is guaranteed, the possibility of successfully overcoming the SARS-CoV-2 infection is still alive.
Objective: Re-exploration after cardiac surgery still remained a troublesome complication. There is still scarcity of data about the effect of re-exploration after off-pump coronary arterial bypass grafting (OPCABG). We here represent our experience of re-exploration following OPCABG. Method: Total 5990 OPCABG were performed at our center, out-off these 132 (2.2%) patients were re-explored in the OR and were included in this study. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The most common cause of re-exploration was bleeding (83.3%) and most common site of bleeding was from graft/anastomosis (53.8%). Mean time to re-exploration was 9.75±8.65 hours. 30-day mortality was 1.41%.On univariate and multiple regression analysis, emergency surgery, preoperative low platelet count, and number of grafts were found to be an independent risk factor for re-exploration. On multiple regression, emergency surgery, euroscoreII, low platelet count, low ejection fraction, re-exploration, time to re-exploration, blood products used, high post-op serum creatinine and bilirubin, were found to be an independent factor (p<0.001) for mortality. On receiver-operating characteristic analysis, optimum cut off for time to re-exploration was 14 hours with sensitivity 81.3%, specificity of 80% and area under curve of 0.798. Patients who re-explored late (>14 hour) had significantly high mortality (30.55%vs7.3%) and morbidity. Conclusion: Delaying the re-exploration is associated with three-fold increase in mortality and morbidity. So strategy of minimizing the incidence of re-exploration like use of minimally invasive surgery and early re-exploration with judicial use of products should be use to improve outcome after re-exploration following off-pump CABG.
The use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) for intraoperative cardiopulmonary support during lung transplantation has been increasing in the recent years. Our group previously described a novel hybrid extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit for use in lung transplantation. Our novel technique for intraoperative management of this circuit during lung transplantation is described.
Abstract The first clinical implantation of the “Essen I prosthesis” took place in 2005, which was then followed by E-Vita open plus. With further advancements E-Vita Neo and E-Novia was introduced. These devices enable the surgeons to perform FET in zone 0/1 which eventually reduce the incidence of paraplegia, recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and proximalization of supraaortic arch vessels. E-vita open plus and successors alleviate frozen elephant trunk operations rendering more stable results in promoting positive remodelling of the distal aorta.
Proximilisation of Frozen Elephant Trunk (FET) necessitates the ligation and reimplantation of the left subclavian artery (LSA), the origin of which is distal and posterior, make rerouting difficult and cumbersome. We describe a rather simple technique for subclavian artery exposure and effective anatomical reconstruction in the mediastinum coupled with hybrid FET utilisation for aortic aneurysm in elective and non-elective settings. The division of the sternocleidomastoid coupled with the sandbag behind the left shoulder brings the LSA superficial enabling anastomosis without any difficulty.
Background : To evaluate the long-term results of implantation of homogeneous large size of pulmonary homograft (PH) for reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). Methods : Between January 2000 and December 2017, 107 patients were implanted with PH for reconstruction of the RVOT. Data were collected retrospectively in this single-center study. PH failure was defined as a peak of gradient > 40 mmHg and/or as a pulmonary regurgitation > grade 2. Primary endpoint was the re-operation of the RVOT during follow-up. Secondary endpoints were overall survival, occurrence of PH failure and the rate of re-operation for all cause. Results : Mean age of the recipients was 26.13 13.59 years. Mean size of PH was 23.02 6.87 mm. Re-operation of the RVOT occurred in 8 patients (7.8%). Time before re-operation was 2.74 years (Interquartile Range: 6.41). Freedom from re-operation for RVOT at 5 and 10 years was respectively 95.7% and 90.0%. Overall survival at 10 years was 95.2%. PH failure occurred in 13 patients (12.0%). Mean time before PH failure was 5.00 4.35 years. Freedom from PH failure at 10 years was 81.6%. Re-operation for PH failure occurred in 4 patients (3.9%). Concomitant tricuspid valve surgery (p=0.037), initial pulmonary stenosis (p=0.04), recipient of PH < 16 years old (p=0.043) were risk factors of late reoperation in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed no independent risk factor of late reoperation. Conclusions : Implantation of large PH for RVOT reconstruction provides excellent mid-term results in terms of re-operation.
Objective: Cardiac tumors are rare conditions. The vast majority of them are benign yet they may lead to serious complications. Complete surgical resection is the gold standard treatment and should be performed as soon as the diagnosis is made. Median sternotomy (MS) is the standard approach and provides excellent early outcomes and durable results at follow-up. However, minimally invasive (MI) is gaining popularity and its role in the treatment of cardiac tumors needs further clarification. Methods: A systematic literature review identified 12 candidate studies; of these, 11 met the meta-analysis criteria. We analyzed outcomes of 653 subjects (294 MI and 359 MS) with random effects modeling. Each study was assessed for heterogeneity. The primary endpoints were mortality at follow-up and tumor relapse. Secondary endpoints included relevant intra- and post-operative outcomes; tumor size was also considered. Results: There were no significant between-group differences in terms of late mortality (incidence rate ratio (IRR): MI vs. MS, 0.98 [95% CI: 0.25¬–3.82], p = 0.98). Few relapses and redo surgery were observed in both groups (IRR: 1.13[0.26-4.88], p=0.87);( IRR: 1.92 [95% CI: 0.39-9.53], p=0.42); MI was associated to prolonged operation time yet with no effects on clinical outcomes. Tumor size did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusions: Both MI and MS are associated with excellent early and late outcomes with acceptable survival rate and low incidence of recurrences. This study confirms that cardiac tumor may be approached safely and radically with a MI approach.
Background: Brazil is an upper-middle-income country in South America with the world’s sixth largest population. Little is known on the volume, outcomes and trends of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in Brazil’s public health system. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of CABG in the public health system in from January 2008 to December 2017 through the database DATASUS. Methods: This study is based on publicly available material obtained from DATASUS, the Brazilian Ministry of Health’s data processing system, on numbers of surgical procedures, death rates, length of stay, and costs. Only isolated CABG procedures were included in our study. We used the TabNet software from the DATASUS website to generate reports. Chi-square test was used to compare death rates. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: We identified 226,697 CABG procedures performed from January 2008 to December 2017. The overall in-hospital mortality over the 10-year period was 5.7%. We observed statistically significant differences in death rates between the five Brazilian macro regions. Death rates by state ranged from 2.6% to 13.1%. The national average mortality rate remained stable over the course of time. Conclusion: Over 10 years, a high volume of CABG was performed in the Brazilian Public Health System with significant differences in mortality, number of procedures, and distribution of surgeries by region. Future databases involving all centers that perform CABG and carry out risk-adjusted analysis will help improve Brazilian results, and enable policymakers to adopt appropriate health care policies for greater transparency and accountability.
The recognition of fibrinolysis phenotypes in trauma patients has led to a reevaluation of antifibrinolytic therapy (AF). Many cardiac patients also receive AF, however the distribution of fibrinolytic phenotypes in that population is unknown. The purpose of this study was to fill that gap. Methods: Data were retrospectively reviewed from 78 cardiac surgery patients. Phenotypes were defined as hypofibrinolytic (LY30 <0.8%), physiologic (LY30 0.8-3.0%) and hyperfibrinolytic (LY30 >3%). Continuous variables were expressed as M ± SD or median (interquartile range). Results: The study population was 65±10 yrs old, 74% male, average body mass index of 29±5 kg/m2. Fibrinolytic phenotypes were distributed as physiologic=45%, hypo=32% and hyper = 23%. There was no obvious effect of age, gender, race, or ethnicity on the distribution of fibrinolysis phenotypes; 47% received AF. The time with chest tube during post-operative recovery was longer in those who received AF (4[3,5] days) vs no AF (3[2,4] days), P=0.037). All cause morbidity occurred in 51% of patients who received AF vs 25% with no AF (p=0.017). However, with AF vs no AF, apparent differences in median chest tube output (1379 vs 820ml, p=0.075), hospital LOS (13 vs 10 days, P=0.873), estimated blood loss (1100 vs 775 ml, P=0.127), units of transfused RBCs (4 vs 2], P=0.152) or all-cause mortality (5.4% [2/37] vs 10% [4/41], P=0.518) were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This is the first description of three distinctly different fibrinolytic phenotypes in cardiac surgery patients. In this population, the use of AF was associated with increased morbidity.
Background. Right ventricular failure (RVF) is a severe event that increases perioperative mortality after Left Ventricle Assist Device (LVAD) implantation. RV function is particularly affected by the LVAD speed by changing RV preload and afterload as well as the position of the interventricular septum. However, there are no studies focusing on the relationship between pump speed optimization and risk factors for development of lateRVF. Methods. Between 2015 and 2019,50 consecutive patients received LVAD implantation at San Camillo Hospital in Rome. Of these, 38 who underwent pump speed optimization were included. Post optimization hemodynamic data were collected. We assessed: a new Hemodynamic Index (HI), calculated as follows HI=MAP x PCWP/CVP x RPM set/RPM max; risk factors for late RVF, which was defined as the requirement for 7 days or more of inotropic support. Results 10 patients had late RVF after LVAD implantation. 5 patients required diuretic therapy and speed optimization. In 3 patients inotropic support with adrenaline 0.05 g/kg/min was started. 2 patients required prolonged continuous veno-venous hemofiltration and high dosage inotropic support. Multivariate analysis revealed that a low HI (odds ratio 11.5, 95 % confidence interval,1.85-65.5,p[.003] was an independent risk factor for late RVF after LVAD implantation. Conclusion A low HI, according to our study, is a significant risk factor for the development of RVF after LVAD implantation. We suggest adopting this index during the follow-up to stratify the different hemodynamic profiles and modify the therapeutic strategies according to the different HI levels obtained for every single patient.
We present two patients with history of recurrent respiratory infections, fatigue and sweating. They were diagnosed with absence of connection between the main pulmonary artery (MPA) and right pulmonary artery (RPA) and bilateral ductus arteriosus, with the RPA originating from the ductus arteriosus. Treatment was approached with a hybrid strategy: percutaneous intraluminal angioplasty with a right intraductal stent and device closure of the left ductus arteriosus and followed by surgical reconstruction with interposition of a graft from RPA to MPA. Both patients had a favorable outcome.
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to describe our short-term outcomes using BioIntegral pulmonic conduit. METHODS Between August 2018 and September 2019, the BioIntegral pulmonic valved conduit was used for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction in 48 patients. The data was retrospectively retrieved from the patient charts. RESULTS The median age at the operation was 36 months (IQR:18-62 months). The diagnoses were PA-VSD in 28 patients, absent pulmonary valve in four patients, truncus arteriosus in six patients, TGA-VSD-PS in five patients, conduit stenosis in three patients and LVOT obstruction requiring Ross operation in two patients. In the postoperative follow-up 15 patients out of 48 had high fever. Out of these, 12 patients had concomitantly elevated CRP levels. There were no patients with blood culture positivity. The median postoperative length of hospital stay was 14 days (IQR:8-21 days). The overall mortality was recorded in 2 patients (4 %), one died due to right ventricular failure and multiple organ failure and one died due to pulmonary embolism. The two patients who died were not among the 15 patients with fever. CONCLUSIONS There was high incidence of fever and adverse outcomes in the short-term postoperative follow-up of the patients in whom the BioIntegral pulmonic valved conduit was implanted. Caution is advisable in using these conduits until there is convincing evidence about the sterilisation and storage standards of these grafts.
Background Randomised trials show high long-term patency for no-touch saphenous vein grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting. The patency rate in off-pump coronary bypass surgery for these grafts has not been investigated. Our centre participated in the CORONARY randomized trial, NCT00463294. This is a sub-study aimed to assess the patency of no-touch saphenous veins in on- versus off-pump coronary bypass surgery at five-year follow-up. Methods Fifty-six patients were included. Forty of 49 patients, alive at five years, participated in this follow-up. There were 21 and 19 patients in the on- and off-pump groups respectively. No-touch saphenous veins were used to bypass all targets and in some cases the left anterior descending artery. Graft patency according to distal anastomosis was evaluated with computed tomography angiography. Results The five-year patency rate was 123/139 (88.5%). The patency for the no-touch vein grafts was 57/64 (89.1%) in the on-pump vs 37/45 (82.2%) in the off-pump group. All left internal thoracic arteries except for one, 29/30 (96.6%), were patent. All vein grafts used to bypass the left anterior descending and the diagonal arteries were patent 32/32. The lowest patency rate for the saphenous veins was to the right coronary territory, particularly in off-pump surgery (80.0% vs 62.5% for the on- respective off-pump groups). Conclusions Comparable five-year patency for the no-touch saphenous veins and the left internal thoracic arteries to the left anterior descending territory in both on- and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Graft patency in off-pump CABG is lower to the right coronary artery.
Background & Aim: Autophagy is a cytoprotective recycling mechanism, capable of digesting dysfunctional cellular components, and this process is associated with pro-survival outcomes. Autophagy may decline in the aging myocardium, thereby contributing to cardiac dysfunction. However, it remains to be established how autophagy responds to ischemia-reperfusion stress with age. Methods: Samples from the right atrium were collected from young (≤50 years; n=5) and aged (≥70 years; n=11) patients prior to and immediately following cardioplegic arrest during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, a model of human ischemia-reperfusion injury. Results: Mitochondrial content did not differ between the age groups, however a 32% reduction in UQCRC2 (0.74 vs 0.53, effect of age, p=0.03) was seen with age, indicating possible compositional disruptions. In response to IR, VDAC (0.75 vs 1.05, p=0.03) and COX-I protein (0.63 vs 1.10, p=0.03) was over expressed in young, but not in aged patients. Reductions in Parkin (0.95 vs 0.49, interaction effect, p=0.04) and NIX (0.60 vs 0.21, p=0.004) protein expression with age suggest an impairment in mitochondrial recycling, which may lead to an accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria. Following IR, our data suggest that in the young cohort, autophagy is reduced as a Beclin-1 decreased by 63% (0.95 vs 0.36, p=0.001) and no changes were observed in either p62 or LC3-II:I ratio. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate a blunted cardiac mitochondrial response to ischemia with age, accompanied by a possible impairment in mitophagy. These findings support an age-associated inability of the atrial myocardium to mount appropriate adaptive responses to stress.
In this letter, we commented on several issues of the recent study entitled “Hypothermic circulatory arrest time affects neurological outcomes of frozen elephant trunk for acute type A aortic dissection: A systematic review and meta‐analysis” by Dr. Mousavizadeh et al. We hope to improve the clarity of this research and call attention to the methodological quality of performing a meta-analysis.
Background: There is limited data to inform minimum case requirements for training in robotically-assisted coronary artery bypass grafting (RA-CABG). Current recommendations rely on non-clinical endpoints and expert opinion. Objectives: To determine the minimum number of RA-CABG procedures required to achieve stable clinical outcomes. Methods: We included isolated RA-CABG in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) registry performed between 2014 and 2019 by surgeons without prior RA-CABG experience. Outcomes were approach conversion, reoperation, major morbidity or mortality, and procedural success. Case sequence number was used as a continuous variable in logistic regression with restricted cubic splines with fixed effects. Outcomes were compared between operations performed earlier versus later in case sequences using unadjusted and adjusted metrics. Results: There were 1195 cases performed by 114 surgeons. A visual inflection point occurs by a surgeon’s 10th procedure for approach conversion, major morbidity or mortality, and overall procedural success after which outcomes stabilize. There was a significant decrease in the rate of approach conversion (7.7% and 2.5%), reoperation (18.9% and 10.8%), and major morbidity or mortality (21.7% and 12.9%), as well as an increase in rate of procedural success (72.9% and 85.3%) with increasing experience between groups. In a multivariable logistic regression model case sequences of >10 was an independent predictor of decreased approach conversion (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.84) and increased rate procedural success (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.00 to 3.84).