Severe recurrent mitral regurgitation (MR) within 1 year of mitral valve repair is usually attributed to a technical issue with the original repair procedure. However, when artificial chordae are employed to correct mitral valve prolapse, ventricular remodeling (i.e. decreased ventricular size) can lead to recurrent prolapse and valve dysfunction. To highlight this phenomena, we present 2 patients who experienced early failure after undergoing mitral valve repair with artificial chordae.
Less invasive techniques for cardiothoracic surgical procedures are designed to limit surgical trauma, but technical requirements and preoperative planning are more demanding than those for conventional sternotomy. Patient selection, interdisciplinary collaboration, and surgical skills are key factors for procedural success. Aortic valve replacement is frequently performed through an upper hemisternotomy, but the right anterior minithoracotomy represents an even less traumatic, technical advancement. Preoperative assessment of the ascending aorta in relation to the sternum is mandatory to select patients and the intercostal access site. This description of the surgical technique focuses on the specific procedural details including the obligatory planning with computed tomography, and our cannulation strategy. We also sought to define the anatomical ascending aorto-sternal relationship, as it is of utmost importance in preoperative computed tomographic planning.
Background: Recent reports have revealed better clinical outcomes for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) than conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).In this retrospective study, we attempted to identify predictors associated with successful weaning off extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support after ECPR. Methods: The demographic and clinical data of 30 ECPR patients aged over 18 years treated between August 2016 and January 2019 were analyzed. All clinical data were retrospectively collected. The primary endpoint was successful weaning from ECMO support after ECPR. Patients were divided into two groups based on successful or unsuccessful weaning off ECMO support (Weaned (n=14) vs. Failed (n=16)). Results: Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, CPR duration, ECMO complications, and loss of pulse pressure significantly predicted the results of weaning off ECMO support. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only CPR duration and loss of pulse pressure independently predicted unsuccessful weaning from ECMO support. Conclusion: We conclude that long CPR duration and loss of pulse pressure after ECPR predict unsuccessful weaning from ECMO. However, unlike CPR duration, loss of pulse pressure during post-ECPR was related to subsequent management. In patients with reduced pulse pressure after ECPR, careful management is warranted because this reduction is closely associated with unsuccessful weaning off ECMO support after ECPR.
On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak a pandemic: it took a toll of more than 300.000 deaths and more than 4.5 million cases, worldwide. The initial data pointed out the tight bond between cardiovascular diseases and worse outcomes in COVID19-patients. Epidemiologically speaking, there is an overlap between the age-groups more affected by COVID-related death and the age-groups in which Cardiac Surgery has its usual base of patients. The Cardiac Surgery Departments have to think to a new normal: since the virus will remain endemic in the society, dedicated pathways or even dedicated Teams are pivotal to treat safely the patients, in respect of the safety of the health care workers. Moreover, we need a keen eye on deciding which pathologies have to be treated with priority: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) showed a higher mortality rate in patients affected by COVID19, but it’s however reasonable to think that all the cardiac pathologies affecting the lung circulation - such as symptomatic severe mitral diseases or aortic stenosis - might deserve a priority access to treatment, in order to increase the survival rate in case of an acquired-Coronavirus infection later on.
Redo multiple valve replacement is known to carry additional risk of morbidity and mortality. Currently, a transcatheter-based valve-in-valve approach could be useful in reducing potential serious consequences. On the other hand, this approach poses several technical challenges regarding the device and procedural aspects of the procedure. We present the case of a 78-year-old man who presented with symptoms of heart failure due to mitro-aortic bioprosthesis degenerations who was deemed to be at extremely high risk for conventional redo surgery. A two-steps single admission transcatheter-based approach was planned with a transfemoral aortic valve-in-valve procedure followed by a trans-apical mitral valve-in-valve implantation. The outcome was good and the recovery was fast.
Background and aim: The incidence of symptomatic cerebral infarction after minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) with retrograde perfusion has been increasing. However, there is no report about silent brain infarction (SBI) after MICS with retrograde perfusion. Because SBI may cause delirium and decline of cognitive function, this condition is important clinically. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the occurrence of SBI after MICS via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Between July 2014 and July 2018, 174 patients underwent MICS with retrograde perfusion and postoperative MRI in this study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the occurrence of SBI and to identify its risk factors. Results: Of 174 patients, 26 (14.9%) presented with SBI. The univariate analysis revealed that age and aortic valve stenosis (AS) are the risk factors of SBI. Meanwhile, multivariate analysis revealed AS as the only risk factor of SBI. Conclusions: At our institution, the incidence of SBI after MICS with retrograde perfusion was acceptable.
Postoperative thoracic aortic graft infection (TAGI) is a serious and potentially fatal complication. The classical approach is to replace the infected graft. However, this approach has a high mortality rate. Alternatively, treatment of TAGI without graft replacement can be performed. Herein, we present successful treatment of the case of a 72-year-old patient with mediastinitis and graft infection after type A aortic dissection operation for whom we performed omental flap coverage following vacuum-assisted wound closure therapy without graft replacement. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and remained infection free for the last 36 months to date.
Background – The impact of post-operative complications on long-term survival is not well characterized. We sought to study the prevalence of post-operative complications after cardiac surgery and their impact on long-term survival. Methods – Operative survivors (n=26,221) who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (n=13054, 49.8%), valve surgery (n=8667, 33.1%) or combined CABG and valve surgery (n=4500, 17.2%) from 1993 to 2019 were included in the study. Records were reviewed for post-operative complications and long-term survival. The associations between post-operative complications and survival were assessed using a Cox-proportional model. Results – Complications occurred in 17,463 (66.6%) of 26,221 operative survivors. A total of 17 post-operative complications were analyzed. Post-operative blood product use was the commonest (n=12397, 47.3%), followed by atrial fibrillation (n=8399, 32.0%), prolonged ventilation (n=2336, 8.9%), renal failure (n=870, 3.3%), re-operation for bleeding (n=859, 3.3%) and pacemaker/ICD insertion (n=795, 3.0%). Stroke (HR 1.55, 95%CI 1.36-1.77), renal failure (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.33-1.58) anticoagulant-related events (HR 1.26, 95%CI 1.02-1.56) and pneumonia (HR 1.23, 95%CI 1.11-1.36) had the strongest impact on long-term survival. Long-term survival decreased as the number of post-operative complications increased. Conclusions – Post-operative complications after cardiac surgery significantly impact outcomes that extend beyond the post-operative period. The presence, number and type of post-operative complications adversely impact long-term survival. Stroke, renal failure, anticoagulant-related events and pneumonia are particularly associated with poor long-term survival.
According with latest guidelines, percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC) represents the first-line treatment for symptomatic severe mitral valve stenosis (SMVS) with favourable morphology, We report a successful surgical treatment of a potential life-threatening complication occurred during PMC. Heart-Team discussion and closed collaboration with Centres are crucial for decision-making and Cardiac Surgery onsite should be ensured for high-risk procedures.
BACKGROUND: To assess the feasibility and outcome of Continuous Cerebral and Myocardial Selective Perfusion (CCMSP) during aortic arch surgery in neonates. METHODS: This retrospective single-center study was conducted between 2008 and 2019 in neonates undergoing aortic arch surgery, accompanied or not by cardiac malformation repair. CCMSP at moderate hypothermic of 28°C was achieved using selective brachiocephalic artery and ascending aorta cannulation. Target rates of cerebral and myocardial perfusion were 25-35 mL/kg/min and 150/m2/min. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) variables and clinical outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, 69 neonates underwent either isolated aortic arch repair (n=31) or aortic arch repair with ventricular septal defect (VSD) closure (n=38). The mean age and weight were 9.79±7.1 days and 3.17±0.4Kg, respectively. Mean CPB and aortic clamping times were 133.5±47.0 and 25.2±5.3 min for isolated aortic arch repair, and 158.4±47.9 and 75.4±30.5 min for aortoplasty accompanied by VSD closure. Mean CCMSP time was 51.6±21.5 min with cerebral rate of 32.6±10.0mL/Kg/min. Two major complications arose: stroke (n=1; 1.44%) and transient renal failure requiring dialysis (n=2; 2.89%). Neither myocardial nor visceral ischemia occurred. In-hospital mortality was 1/69 (1.44%). CONCLUSIONS: CCMSP is a safe and reproducible strategy for cerebral, myocardial and visceral protection in neonatal aortic arch repair, with or without VSD closure, resulting in low complication and mortality.
Background: Cardiac surgeries use 10%–15% of red blood cells transfused in the United States, despite benefits of limiting transfusions. We sought to evaluate the the feasibility and impact of a restrictive transfusion protocol on blood use and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing isolated primary coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: Blood conservation measures, instituted in 2012, include preoperative optimization, intraoperative anesthesia and pump fluid restriction with retrograde autologous priming and vacuum-assisted drainage, use of aminocaproic acid and cell saver, intra- and postoperative permissive anemia, and administration of iron and lowdose vasopressors if needed. Medical records of patients who underwent isolated primary CABG from 2009–2012 (group A; n=375) and 2013–2016 (group B; n=322) were compared. Results: CABG with grafting to 3 or 4 coronary arteries was performed in 262 (70%) and 222 (69%) patients and bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting in 202 (54%) and 196 (61%) patients in groups A and B, respectively. Mean preoperative and intraoperative hematocrit was 40.3% and 40.7%, 28.9% and 29.4% in groups A and B, respectively. Total blood transfusion was 24% and 6.5%, intraoperative transfusion 10% and 1.2%, postoperative transfusion 19% and 5.3% (p<0.0001 for all) in groups A and B, respectively. Median postoperative length of stay was 5.0 days in group A and 4.5 days in group B (p =.02), with no significant differences between groups in mortality or morbidity. Conclusions: A restrictive transfusion protocol reduced blood transfusions and postoperative length of stay without adversely affecting outcomes following isolated primary CABG.
COVID-19: The heart of the issue Beth Woodward BMedSc (Hons)1, Muhammed Kermali2College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UKSt. George’s, University of London, London, UKCorresponding author:Beth WoodwardBMedSc (Hons)College of Medical and Dental SciencesUniversity of BirminghamBirmingham, UKe-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgTel: 07947766140Funding: none obtainedConflict of Interest: none to be declaredKey words: COVID-19, angiotensin, ACEiBW and MK contributed equally.
Covid has blatantly uncovered the disconnect between the healthcare professionals who have the responsibility for the health of the nation but little of the authority, and politicians and business people who have the authority and political power over healthcare, but none of the responsibility for the health of the nation. The time has come to review this dichotomy and to reinvent medical education in order to empower and train healthcare professionals, particularly mid-career ones, to become adept in the business of medicine; including budgeting, management, leadership, hiring and firing, brand building and other important aspects of running complex healthcare entities. It is no longer acceptable for physicians to accept backseat for non-physician managers and concede their rules and regulations without question. The time is now for health professionals to train themselves and take charge of the profession.