Aortic valve regurgitation in patients undergoing LVAD implantation is a significant complication which occurs in up to 10% of patients in the INTERMACS database. Patients who have aortic valve regurgitation at the time of implant have been handled by several methods, including aortic valve leaflets approximation, to aortic valve replacement or even valve closure. We report a case where we used HAART Ring to repair a regurgitant aortic valve during LAVD implant for destination therapy.
Thin, metallic wires can easily penetrate the gastrointestinal system if ingested and cause serious cardiac issues in children. We report a pediatric case of such an object that caused cardiac tamponade after lodging in the left ventricle. The wire was extracted without cardiopulmonary bypass and a full recovery was made. Cardiac issues after ingestion of foreign objects are rare but immediate surgery is required for resolution.
Background and aim: On the basis of previously published accounts, coupled with our own experience, we have assessed the surgical approaches to patients with isomeric atrial appendages. Methods: We reviewed pertinent published studies on surgical treatment of individuals with isomeric atrial appendages, with the pertinent surgical details provided by most of the manuscripts. Results: Half of patients with right isomerism, and two-thirds of those with left isomerism have bilateral superior caval veins. Azygos extension of the inferior caval vein is reported in three-quarters of those with left isomerism. The coronary sinus is universally absent in right isomerism, along with totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection, and is absent in two-fifths of those with left isomerism.. Univentricular atrioventricular connections are expected in up to three-quarters of those with right isomerism. Atrioventricular septal defect is reported in up to four-fifths, more frequently in right isomerism, with such patients typically having discordant ventriculoatrial connections or double outlet right ventricle. Reported mortalities extend to 85% for those with right, and 50% for those with left isomerism. In right isomerism, mortality is up to 54% for systemic-to-pulmonary arterial shunting, up to 75% for univentricular repair, and up to 95% for repair of totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection itself. No more than one-quarter had undergone Fontan completion, with reported mortalities of 21%. Conclusion: Early surgical results are satisfactory in patients with left isomerism, but disappointing for those with right. Recent advances in cardiac and liver transplantation may offer improved survival.
Technical details for complex cardiac tumor resection are sparse. We describe the operative technique of modified autotransplantation for resection of a complex pericardial synovial sarcoma in a 63-year-old, Caucasian female. Surgical exposure demonstrated tumor origin at the superior cavoatrial junction and invasion of the aorta, main pulmonary artery, superior pulmonary veins, and left atrial roof. Full macroscopic surgical resection was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiation for microscopic positive margins and remains alive and with no tumor progression at one year postoperatively. We conclude that modified autotransplantation is a challenging but effective surgical technique when performed with careful patient selection and availability of skilled, cardiothoracic surgeons at a cardiac center of excellence.
The meta-analysis by He and collaborators [has the worth to cover, as much as possible, a gap of scientific evidence where conducting a randomized trial appears very complex for ethical and logistical reasons. The authors concluded that mitral valve repair (MVP) provide better pooled results, both early and late, with respect to mitral valve replacement (MVR). However, the superiority of MVP is driven by some single large cohort-studies where surgeons had wide experience in the field of MVP for IE. This finding is also confirmed by other studies. But if mitral repair produces such a better short- and long-term survival than replacement, why are there no clear indications from consensus and guidelines pushing surgeons toward the pursuit of a reconstructive procedure at almost any cost? We wonder but to repair or not to repair, is that really the question? The AATS consensus suggests to repair “whenever possible” but without providing more specific indications. If the two primary goals of surgery are total removal of infected tissues and reconstruction of cardiac morphology, including repair or replacement of the affected valve(s), probably MVP as to perform in case of less extensive tissue detriment by the infection. In more wide valve involvement, MVP may be the choice but only in very expert hands and in Centers with very large volume of valve repairing. This decision cannot therefore be the result of the choice of an individual but must derive from a careful multidisciplinary discussion to be held in an EndoTeam.
Background: Transcatheter mitral valve implantation (TMVI) is a promising and minimally invasive treatment for high-risk mitral regurgitation (MR). The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a novel self-expanding valved stent for transcatheter mitral valve implantation via apical access. Methods: A novel self-expanding mitral valved stent system was designed and fabricated for the in vivo evaluation. It is consists of an atrial flange and a saddle-shaped ventricular body connected by two opposing anchors and two opposing extensions. During the valve deployment, each anchor is controlled by a recurrent string. TMVI was performed in ten pigs using the valve prosthesis through the apical access to verify technical feasibility. Echocardiography and ventricular angiography were used to assess hemodynamic data and valve function. The surviving pigs were sacrificed four weeks later to confirm stent deployment. Results: Ten animals underwent transapical mitral valve implantation with the novel mitral valved stent. Optimal valve deployment and accurate anatomical adjustment were obtained in nine animals. Implantation failed in one case, and the animal died one day later due to stent mismatch. After stent implantation, the hemodynamic parameter of other animals was stable and valve function was normal. The mean pressure across the mitral valve and left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) were 2.98±0.91mmHg and 3.42±0.66 mmHg, respectively. The macroscopic evaluation confirmed the stable and secure positioning of the stents in the mitral valve. No obvious valve displacement, embolism, and paravalvular leakage were observed four weeks after valve implantation. Conclusions: This study proved that the novel mitral valved valve stent is technically feasible in animals. This device features opposing anchors, opposing recurrent strings, and saddle-like ventricular portions, providing structural design details for reducing TMVI complications. However, the long-term feasibility and durability of this valved stent need to be improved and verified.
Background and aim of the study. Wrapping of the ascending aorta (AA), isolated or associated with aortoplasty, has never been completely accepted. Some complications, as folding of the aortic wall, compression of the vasa vasorum and changes in the flow pattern, with consequent dilatation of the proximal arch, have been described. We used fresh autologous pericardium (FAP), so far never reported, to wrap the AA, with the aim to stabilize its size when moderately dilated, maintaining the preoperative dimension or limiting the reduction to a few mm. Material and Methods. From 2015 to 2019, 10 patients, who were operated on for valve or coronary surgery or both, underwent wrapping of the AA with FAP. Mean age was 69±7 years and ESII 3.5±1.7. Four patients had moderately impaired ejection fraction (35-49%). Results. There was no early or late mortality. One patient was reoperated on after 48 months for severe mitral regurgitation. At a follow up of 53±14 months, a transthoracic echocardiogram showed that the AA size reduced slightly but significantly, from 45.2±2.0 to 42.5±4.1 mm, p=0.03. The diameter of the proximal arch remained unchanged, from 37.1±1.6 to 36.3±2.9 mm, p=0.20. Conclusions. In presence of moderately dilated AA wrapping can be a reasonable option. The use of FAP stabilizes the size of the aorta after a follow up of 53 months. Maintaining a size similar to the preoperative one avoids the complications related to the procedure.
Background: While enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathways have been successfully applied for cardiac surgery, there has been limited research directly comparing ERAS protocols to ad hoc narcotic use after surgery. We hypothesized that a standardized ERAS protocol would provide similar pain management and psycho-emotional outcomes while decreasing the use of opioids in the hospital and after discharge. Methods: As part of a 7-month quality improvement project, cardiac surgery patients on a fast tracked to extubate pathway were assigned PRN narcotic pain management for 3 months (n=49). After a 1-month ERAS protocol optimization period, a separate group of patients were given the ERAS protocol (n=34). Clinical outcomes were gathered, and participants completed a quality of recovery survey that allowed for the assessment of pain and symptom control at 4 time-points post-surgery. Results: Among 83 participants, 66% were male and the mean age was 53 years. There were no differences in patient characteristics between PRN and ERAS groups (all p>0.244). There were no differences between ERAS and PRN groups for surgery characteristics (all p>0.060), inpatient outcomes (all p>0.658), or after-discharge outcomes (all p>0.397). Furthermore, across all time-point comparisons, there were no supported differences in patient-reported outcome and pain control between the ERAS and PRN narcotic groups (all p>0.075). Conclusions: An ERAS protocol demonstrated similar patient outcomes and pain control to traditional opioid use for postoperative cardiac surgery patients. Further research is recommended to further confirm the results of this study.
This case report describes the management of a large iatrogenic ventricular septal defect (VSD) created by the coring device during systemic ventricular assist device (RVAD) insertion in a 16 year-old patient with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries. The VSD was closed by bovine pericardial patch and the ventriculotomy was extended laterally to relocate the VAD sewing ring. After RVAD implantation, patient initially remained cyanotic, potentially due to a tiny VSD patch leak with right to left shunting. Hypoxia was successfully corrected by rescue nitric oxide infusion and patient was bridged to transplant after 91 days.
We reported a case of a 3-month-old infant presented with supravalvular aortic stenosis with congenital right coronary artery deficiency. According to cardiovascular CT results, Doty technique was adopted to restore the aortic root geometry under cardiopulmonary bypass. An angioplasty was performed to establish right coronary blood flow at the same time. The patient had no abnormal cardiac symptoms after surgery.
Infectious complications have been shown to increase the morbidity of venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) population, including the use of right ventricular assist devices. We aimed to evaluate our VV-ECMO population for ECMO related bloodstream infections (E-BSI) and characteristics that affect risk and overall outcomes. We report a low infection rate of 2.7%. We postulate our low BSI rate may be due to our use of perioperative antimicrobials as well as a majority of our cannulations occurring in the operating room. Further investigation into trends, risks, and outcomes related to E-BSI is needed.
We present a reply to the invited commentary by Jubouri and Abdelhaliem published in response to our original article titled: Prevention vs Cure: is BioGlue priming the optimal strategy against E-Vita Neo graft oozing? The authors highlight key issues associated with the E-Vita Open NEO aortic arch prosthesis, chiefly, the propensity for the prosthesis to exhibit post-anastomotic oozing. We read with great interest their commentary and concur that the issues highlighted therein are significant and warrant discussion.
Open surgery for chronic type B aortic dissection has been shown to have considerable risks of cerebrovascular complications. Because retrograde perfusion is a potential cause of intraoperative cerebrovascular events, we report our transapical cannulation strategy for descending aorta replacement in chronic type B aortic dissection repair with circulatory arrest. This technique provides an easy and quick establishment of cardiopulmonary bypass by way of a left thoracotomy, and prevention of cerebrovascular event. Transapical cannula can be also used as a vent to ensure a bloodless field during proximal anastomosis and to prevent extension of left ventricle during rewarming. Transapical cannulation is a useful option in open repair of the descending aorta for chronic type B aortic dissection by way of left thoracotomy.
Background and Aim of the Study: Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital defect among infants born in the United States. Within the first year of life, 1 in 4 of these infants will need surgery. Only one generation removed from an overall mortality of 14%, many changes have been introduced into the field. Have these changes measurably improved outcomes? Methods: The literature search was conducted through PubMed MEDLINE and Google Scholar from inception to October 31, 2021. Ultimately, 78 publications were chosen for inclusion. Results: The outcome of overall mortality has experienced continuous improvements in the modern era of the specialty despite the performance of more technically demanding surgeries on patients with complex comorbidities. This modality does not account for case-mix, however. In turn, clinical outcomes have not been consistent from center to center. Furthermore, variation in practice between institutions has also been documented. A recurring theme in the literature is a movement towards standardization and universalization. Examples include mortality risk-stratification that has allowed direct comparison of outcomes between programs and improved definitions of morbidities which provide an enhanced framework for diagnosis and management. Conclusions: Overall mortality is now below 3%, which suggests that more patients are surviving their interventions than in any previous era in congenital cardiac surgery. Focus has transitioned from survival to improving the quality of life in the survivors by decreasing the incidence of morbidity and associated long-term effects. With the transformation towards standardization and interinstitutional collaboration, future advancements are expected.