Cardiac involvement of hydatid cyst disease is a rare presentation but may lead to life-threatening complications such as cyst rupture and should be treated surgically A 10-year-old male patient with cranial and complicated cardiac hydatid cyst disease lesions that caused lower extremity peripheral arterial occlusion and aneurysmatic dilatation in the left ventricular apex is presented. Although the patient was in the pediatric age group, the Dor procedure was successfully applied to preserve the ventricular geometry. The Dor procedure for a ventricular aneurysm caused by a cardiac hydatid cyst was rarely applied in the pediatric age group. Inconclusion, this case differs from other cardiac hydatid cysts previously reported in the literature due to the advanced stage of the disease, atypical clinical presentation, and rare complications despite the young age of the case. The surgical method used in treating the patient makes the subject more interesting.
Background: Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) occurs when at least one pulmonary vein drains into the right atrium or its tributaries rather than the left atrium, most commonly connecting with the superior vena cava (SVC). The Warden procedure involves transecting the SVC proximal to the uppermost connection of the pulmonary vein followed by proximal SVC reattachment to the right atrial appendage. However, descending thoracic aortic homograft replacement for SVC translocation has recently been introduced as a modified technique. Aims: This commentary aims to discuss the recent study by Said and colleagues who reported their experiences with 6 PAPVC cases undergoing a modified Warden procedure using thoracic aortic homograft SVC translocation. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed using multiple electronic databases in order to collate the relevant research evidence. Results: The Warden procedure is associated with a 10% incidence of SVC obstruction with many requiring reintervention. Meanwhile, using the aortic homograft for SVC translocation, Said et al. observed no SVC obstructions. In addition, this modified technique does not require anticoagulation and has demonstrated an improvement in long-term SVC patency. Nevertheless, it can be considered an expensive procedure. Moreover, since the thoracic aortic homograft utilised is biological tissue, only long-term follow-up will determine whether calcification and graft degeneration is an issue. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the modified Warden procedure is a safe and effective method to reconstruct the systemic venous drainage into the right atrium when a direct anastomosis under tension might be prone to re-stenosis.
The authors performed a detailed retrospective analysis of diabetic patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) aiming to investigate the association of the preoperative Glycosylated hemoglobin with occurance of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Altough statistical analysis showed a weak relationship between HbA1c values of 9.06% or above and PoAF, they concluded that serum level of HbA1c could not be used as a predictor for the development of PoAF. But there are many questions to be asked and answers to be found.
Background: Four factor prothrombin complex (PCC4), a concentrate of factors II, VII, IX, X and protein C and S, has been used selectively for reversal of oral anticoagulation prior to surgery. There is data to support PCC4 as opposed to supplemental fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to manage postoperative bleeding following cardiac surgery. The preemptive, intraoperative use of PCC4 in cardiothoracic surgery has not been studied though it may prevent postoperative bleeding, the need for blood transfusion and the risk of transfusion related acute lung injury, volume overload, and right ventricular (RV) heart failure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the intraoperative administration of PCC4 to decrease bleeding and lower the rate of blood transfusion. Methods: A single institution retrospective chart review conducted from May 2020 to November 2021 of patients who received PCC4 intraoperatively during cardiothoracic surgery of high risk variety. Patients were evaluated for type of surgery, demographics, baseline anticoagulation, PCC4 dose, type and quantity of blood transfusion within 72 hours postoperatively, chest tube output, incidence of right ventricular failure, hypersensitivity reactions, acute kidney injury, thrombosis, acute lung injury, and mortality within 45 days of the operative dose of PCC4. Results: Thirty five patients received PCC4 at a mean dose of 2920 units. Sixty five percent of cases were LVAD or heart transplant. The protocol is to use PCC4 30 units/kilogram immediately after completion of protamine administration. Inclusion criteria are: cardiothoracic surgery with increased risk of postoperative right heart failure commonly secondary to blood product transfusion, or cardiothoracic surgery associated with increased risk of bleeding, including: heart transplant, LVAD implant, aortic dissection, and redo sternotomy (e.g. coronary artery bypass). Total chest tube output was recorded as a mean of 757 mL for 24 hours after surgery (32 ml/hr). Overall median event rates of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion were 0 (interquartile range 0 - 3 units) and 4 (interquartile range 2-5 units). Overall, forty-three percent and eighty-nine percent of cases received FFP and RBC, respectively. There was one occurrence of right ventricular failure, one occurrence of acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy, one occurrence of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, one occurrence of venous thromboembolism related to a central venous access line, and one death unrelated to surgery or PCC4 that was attributed to advanced heart failure not amenable to advanced therapies. Conclusion: Overall patients received a low rate of blood transfusion, had minimal chest tube output, and there was a small incidence of right heart failure. Patients did not have an increased risk of adverse effects such as acute kidney injury or venous thromboembolism. A randomized controlled clinical trial comparing the observed dose and timing of PCC4 versus routine postoperative bleeding management with blood product transfusion is recommended.
Background. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) at ≤20°C for aortic arch surgery has been widely used for decades, with or without cerebral perfusion (CP), antegrade (ACP) or retrograde. In recent years nadir temperature progressively increased to 26-28 °C (moderately hypothermic circulatory arrest, MHCA), adding ACP. Aim of this multicentric study is to evaluate early results of aortic arch surgery and if DHCA with 10-minute of cold reperfusion at the same nadir temperature of the CA before rewarming (delayed rewarming, DR) can provide a neuroprotection and a lower body protection similar to that provided by MHCA+ACP. Methods. Two-hundred-ten patients were included in the study. DHCA+DR was used in 59 patients and MHCA+ACP in 151. Primary endpoints were death, neurologic event (NE), temporary (TNE) or permanent (permanent neurologic deficit, PND), and need of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Results. Operative mortality occurred in 14 patients (6.7%), NEs in 17 (8.1%) and PNDs in 10 (4.8%). Twenty-three patients (10.9%) needed RRT. Death+PND occurred in 21 patients (10%) and composite endpoint in 35 (19.2%). Intergroup weighed logistic regression analysis showed similar prevalence of deaths, NDs and death+PND, but need of RRT (OR 7.39, CI 1.37-79.1) and composite endpoint (OR 8.97, CI 1.95-35.3) were significantly lower in DHCA+DR group compared with MHCA+ACP group. Conclusions. The results of our study demonstrate that DHCA+DR has the same prevalence of operative mortality, NE and association of death+PND than MHCA+ACP. However, the data suggests that DHCA+DR when compared with MHCA+ACP provides better renal protection and reduced prevalence of composite endpoint.
The management of patients with transposition complex in combination with an interrupted aortic arch (IAA) presents a technical challenge to the surgeon to decide which is the best approach to correct both defects. This is a rare disorder and with significant variation in anatomic arrangements deciding on the ideal surgical repair. Over time a single-stage approach to repair has become standard.
Kawasaki Disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis of small and medium arteries, preferably affecting coronary arteries. It is one of the most frequent causes of acquired heart disease in children. Despite being comprehensively studied, its etiopathogenesis is not totally explained. The surgical procedures usually become necessary during the late follow-up and may be coronary artery bypass grafting, cardiac defibrillator implantation with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy, or cardiac transplantation.
Mitral regurgitation in Barlow disease may still be challenging to be repaired . Most often it involves the posterior leaflet . Many techniques and concepts are currently available ; the main goal being to restore a good surface of coaptation . Basic principles such a thorough analysis is still required whatever the approach to assess excess tissue height , width and prolapse . Nowadays it seems that two different ways of treating mitral prolapse coexist : the non resection one and the resection one .Both will be discussed and analysed . Similarly the use of artificial chordae seem to have a preponderant role to support the free edge and correct a prolapse . Native secondary chord transfer are easy and reliable but seem abandoned by many . Anterior leaflet prolapse is also dealt with and fewer options are available to address this leaflet . Then commissural prolapse is mentioned . It is an important area of the valve which should deserve better treatment than commissuroplasty . Finally a special entity will be described ; mitro annular disjonction . The approach is not or no longer an issue as only good long term results are important in an era where per cutaneous therapy is the only non invasive technique .
TITLE PAGE Title: Letter to the Editor: Early experience of aortic surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom: A multicenter studyArticle type: Letter to the editorCorrespondence : 1. Sara AlzagloolContact: +962797244907 Email: Sarah97.firstname.lastname@example.orgInstitute: Al-Bashir HospitalAddress: Al Bashir Hospital، Ossamah Ben Zeid St. 261, Amman, JordanCo-authors : 2. Osama Al-JaiuossiContact: +962788003306 Email: Osamaeyad@ymail.comInstitute: Al-Bashir HospitalAddress: Al Bashir Hospital، Ossamah Ben Zeid St. 261, Amman, JordanWords count: 480Conflict of interest: NoneFunding: NoneAcknowledgement: NoneDeclaration: None
A 22-year-old immunocompetent female with a history of small pericardial effusion while infant presented with fever and hemodynamic collapse four days after facial trauma. She was found to have cardiac tamponade secondary to infected chylopericardium from bacterial translocation. We report this very unusual case and review of the literature on chylopericardium infections.
Background. The effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS), defined as insulin resistance along with two or more of: obesity, atherogenic dyslipidaemia and elevated blood pressure, on post-operative complications after isolated heart valve intervention remains controversial. We hypothesized that MetS may negatively influence the post-operative course in these patients. Methods. Patients from 10 cardiac units who underwent isolated valve intervention (mitral ± tricuspid repair/replacement (MVS) or aortic valve replacement (SAVR), or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) were included. MetS was defined according to the WHO criteria. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and overall post-operative length of stay. Relevant post-operative complications were also recorded. Results. From 2010 to 2019, 17283 patients underwent valve intervention. The MVS, SVAR and TAVR accounted for the 39.4%, 48.2% and 12.3% respectively of the whole. MetS compared to no-MetS was associated to higher mortality in the MVS group (6.5% vs. 2%, p<0.001), but not in the SAVR and TAVR group. In both surgical cohorts, MetS was associated with increased complications including red blood cells transfusion, renal failure, mechanical ventilation time, intensive care and overall post-operative length of stay (11 (9) vs. 10 (6), p<0.001 and 10 (6) vs. 10 (5) days, p=0.002, MVS and SAVR)). No differences were found in the TAVR cohort, with similar mortality and complications. Conclusion. MetS was associated to more post-operative complications, with higher mortality in the MVS group. In the TAVR cohort, post-operative complications and mortality rate did not differ between patients with and without MetS, however length of stay was longer in the MetS group.
Title Page:Title : Letter To the Editor: Outcomes of Preoperative Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients With Acute Type A Aortic DissectionArticle Type : Letter To The EditorCorrespondence : 1. Sandhya KumariContact no: +92-3321346164 Email: email@example.comInstitute: Ziauddin University KarachiAddress: Bungalow Number 7/2, 26th Street, Tauheed Commercial Area, Phase 5 Defence Karachi.ORCID: 0000-0001-8842-8738Co-Author : 2. Roomi RajaContact No: +92-3342946940 Email: Romirajagoindani@yahoo.comInstitution: Ziauddin University KarachiAddress: Hemilton Courts Block G-1 Flat 408 Near Teen Talwar Clifton KarachiORCID: 0000-0001-9104-3644Word Count : 340Conflict of interest : NoneAcknowledgement : NoneDeclaration : NoneDisclosure : NoneFunding : NoneDear Editor,We have, in recent times, read with great interest the article entitled “ Outcomes of Preoperative Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients With Acute Type A Aortic Dissection” by Xuan Jiang MD et al.1 We highly appreciate the author’s efforts towards this highly sensitive topic and it needs to be applauded by the readers.We acknowledge the primary conclusion of the article that patients receiving antiplatelet therapy before having surgery for acute type A aortic dissection is associated with increased mortality and increased need for blood transfusions. However, some concerns appear, disturbing the validity of the study.Even though the authors have highlighted the use of multiple different antiplatelet drugs before the surgery such as ticagrelor, clopidogrel and aspirin, there remains some factors that made an impact on the findings. Firstly, the authors should have considered the patients who are on Dual antiplatelet therapy because mortality and blood transfusion rate in patients using dual antiplatelet therapy is higher as compared to a single antiplatelet drug user.2 Secondly, the authors should have widened their inclusion criteria and could have included patients with preoperative characteristic such as cardiac tamponade and lower systolic blood pressure, like the study of 2014 included these two as variables and found increased prevalence of mortality associated with these variables.3Thirdly, the authors should have classified the patients using Debakey class 1,2 and Penn class A,B,C classifications. For example, a study in 2019 stated that the patients who experienced major bleeding were associated with Debakey class 1 and higher Penn class.4 Lastly, the authors should have taken into consideration some measures while transferring a patient to the ICU to minimize the mortality rate. For example, a study of 2022 stated that patients on new oral anticoagulants required norepinephrine and other inotropic agents while transferring to ICU as compared to patients taking warfarin (Coumadin).5In last, additional new studies should be conducted on patients receiving antiplatelet therapy before undergoing mitral valve surgery so that incidents leading to mortality goes down and prognosis becomes better.References:1- Jiang X, Khan F, Shi E, Fan R, Qian X, Zhang H, Gu T. Outcomes of preoperativeantiplatelet therapy in patients with acute type A aortic dissection. J Card Surg. 2022Jan;37(1):53-61. doi: 10.1111/jocs.16080. Epub 2021 Oct 17. PMID: 34657299.2- Chemtob RA, Moeller-Soerensen H, Holmvang L, Olsen PS, Ravn HB. OutcomeAfter Surgery for Acute Aortic Dissection: Influence of Preoperative AntiplateletTherapy on Prognosis. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2017 Apr;31(2):569-574. doi:10.1053/j.jvca.2016.10.007. Epub 2016 Oct 11. PMID: 28017673.3- Hansson EC, Dellborg M, Lepore V, Jeppsson A. Prevalence, indications andappropriateness of antiplatelet therapy in patients operated for acute aortic dissection:associations with bleeding complications and mortality. Heart. 2013 Jan;99(2):116-21. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2012-302717. Epub 2012 Oct 9. PMID: 23048167.4- Hansson EC, Geirsson A, Hjortdal V, Mennander A, Olsson C, Gunn J, et al.Preoperative dual antiplatelet therapy increases bleeding and transfusions but notmortality in acute aortic dissection type a repair [Internet]. OUP Academic. OxfordUniversity Press; 2019: doi: org/10.1093/ejctz/ezy469. Epub 2019 january 16.5- Sromicki J, Van Hemelrijck M, Schmiady MO, Krüger B, Morjan M, Bettex D, VogtPR, Carrel TP, Mestres CA. Prior intake of new oral anticoagulants adversely affectsoutcome following surgery for acute type A aortic dissection. Interact CardiovascThorac Surg. 2022 Jun 15;35(1):ivac037. doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivac037. PMID:35258082; PMCID: PMC9252133.
Over the last few years cardiac changed radically and so has the average age of the heart disease population progressively increased. Mitral valve surgery has a significant margin for progress in conservative vs replacement strategy. Mitral disease due to insufficiency in the elderly population has historically suffered from lower repair rates but deficiency alone should not limit repair operations in a specialized environment ensuring good survival.
Background: The management of aortic arch pathologies represents a great challenge and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity. A superior endovascular approach via thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been introduced to treat arch pathologies with specifically designed endografts. This approach was shown to benefit patients who are deemed ‘high risk’ for undergoing OSR as it is a greatly less invasiveness option and thus, yields lower rates of morbidity and mortality. Aims: This commentary aims to discuss the recent study by Tan et al. which reports original data on the neurological outcomes after endovascular repair of the aortic arch using the RELAY™ Branched device. Methods: We carried out a literature search on multiple electronic databases including PubMed, Ovid, Google Scholar, Scopus and EMBASE in order to collate research evidence on the neurological outcomes of endovascular aortic arch repair with TEVAR. Results: Tan and colleagues showed through their original clinical data that the RELAY™ Branched device has a high rate of technical success and favourable neurological outcomes. There were no reported neurological deficits in patients who received the triple-branched RELAY™ Branched device. Conclusion: The RELAY™ Branched endograft is well-established for candidates for aortic arch endovascular repair with favourable neurological outcomes. Multiple considerations can help control the incidence of stroke following endovascular repair. These include optimization of the supra-aortic vessels’ revascularization, weighting the embolic risk in patients with atheromatous disease, and careful preoperative assessment to select the best candidates for arch endovascular repair
Abstract Background: We report a 62-year-old patient who received redo-orthotopic Heart transplantation due to worsening severe aortic regurgitation after 19 months of continuous flow LVAD (cf-LVAD) and temporary RVAD support for one month. Case Report: The patient received a heartware LVAD (HVAD) and annuloplasty of the tricuspid valve due to end-stage heart failure (as a consequence of dilated cardiomyopathy) and severe tricuspid regurgitation in addition to right-sided ECMO implantation. Postoperatively due to the inability to wean the implanted ECMO, a temporary RVAD was implanted after which the patient’s condition improved so that it had been explanted later and the patient was discharged after nine-month. In immediate post-operative echo, minimal aortic regurgitation was noted but in the follow-up transthoracic echocardiograms, there was a gradual increase in the severity of aortic regurgitation with worsening both right and left ventricular functions. TAVI was not an option due to unfavourable anatomical issues. That’s why the patient was listed for urgent heart transplantation, performed 19 months after the LVAD implantation. The postoperative course was complicated due to acute renal failure. After recompensation, dialysis, and intensive physiotherapy, the patient could be discharged home after three months. Conclusion: severe aortic regurgitation is a recognizable complication after cf-LVAD implantation which in our case was managed successfully with orthotopic heart transplantation in this high-risk patient.