Background: The radial artery (RA) is often utilized for diagnostic coronary angiography and percutaneous intervention. Recent high-level evidence supports RA use in preference to saphenous vein as a conduit for coronary revascularization. Aim: To demonstrate gross and histologic changes of the RA following transradial access. Methods: We present two patients who had open RA harvest for coronary bypass surgery after transradial catheterization. Results: Examination 8 years after transradial catheterization demonstrated thickened intima and dissection, and examination 12 years following transradial catheterization with percutaneous coronary intervention demonstrated chronic dissection with thickened intima and near occlusion of the lumen. Conclusion: Transradial access via the RA, even after several years, is associated significant injury, making it unusable as a conduit for surgical coronary revascularization. A RA that has been utilized for catheterization should not be considered for coronary revascularization.
Background: The advent of Frozen elephant trunk (FET) for reconstruction of elective and non-elective aortic arch surgery has augmented the treatment of complex aortic pathologies in a single-stage operation. To date, no studies have been focused on the prevalence and predictors of coagulopathy potentiated by FET procedure. Methods: In a systematic review, we searched databases up to June 2020 for studies reporting coagulopathy complications after FET procedure. A proportional meta-analysis was carried out using STATA software (StataCorp, TX, USA). Results: In total, 46 studies including 6313 patients were eligible. The pooled estimation of reoperation for postoperative bleeding was 7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5 to 8; I2 = 84.73%; reported by 39 studies including 4796 patients). The mean volume of transfused packed blood cells and fresh frozen plasma was 1677 ml (95% CI 1066.4-2287.6) and 1016.5 ml (95% CI 450.7-1582.3). The subgroup by stent type showed a decrease in the heterogeneity (I2 = 0.01%, I2 = 53.95%, I2 = 0.01%, and I2 = 54.41% for Thoraflex® Hybrid, E-vita®, Frozenix®, and Cronus®, respectively). The subgroup by chronicity of operation resulted in less heterogeneity among patients undergoing elective compared to non-elective operation (I2 = 29.22% versus I2 = 80.56% in non-elective). Meta-regression analysis showed that age and male gender significantly impacted on the reoperation for postoperative bleeding. Conclusions: The FET procedure for arch replacement is associated with coagulopathy and the transfusion of blood products. Male, age, and selective choice of FET use were identified as heterogeneity sources of reoperation for postoperative bleeding.
Much has changed since the introduction of surgical valve repair in the 1950s, from the introduction bioprosthetic valves to percutaneous approaches to valve repair. Yet, despite substantial advancements in bioprosthetic valve technology, there has been a lack of direct, independent comparison between bioprosthetic mitral valve devices, accompanied by a marked heterogeneity in approaches to the sizing and selection thereof. Wang et al. have hence endeavoured to evaluate, head-to-head, the technical successes and biomechanical outcomes associated with three different bioprosthetic mitral valves (Epic, Abbott, IL; Mosaic, Medtronic, MN; Mitris Resilia, Edwards Lifesciences, CA) in a porcine model, under standardised haemodynamic and anatomical conditions. With a robust experimental technique, they have made clear the heterogeneity in both sizing and biomechanical properties between bioprosthetic mitral valves, and have further emphasised the need for a uniform approach to the manufacturing and sizing of bioprosthetic valves.
Background: Minimally invasive heart valve surgery has previously been shown to be safe and feasible in obese patients. Within this population, we investigated the effect of obesity class on the patient outcomes of minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (mini-AVR). Methods: A single center retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with obese body mass indices (BMIs) who underwent mini-AVR between 2012 and 2018. Patients were stratified into 3 groups according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention adult obesity classifications: Class I (BMI 30.0 to < 35.0), Class II (BMI 35.0 to < 40.0), and Class III (BMI ≥ 40.0). The primary outcomes were postoperative length of stay (LOS), 30-day mortality within, and cost. Results: Amongst 182 obese patients who underwent mini-AVR, LOS (Class I 4 [3-6] vs. Class II 4 [3-6] vs. Class III 5 [4-6] days; p=0.098) and costs (Class I $24,487 [$20,199-$27.480] vs. Class II $22,921 [$20,433-$27,740] vs. Class III $23,886 [$20,063-$33,800] USD; p=0.860) did not differ between obesity class cohorts. Postoperative 30-day mortality (Class I 2.83% [n=2] vs. Class II 0% [n=0] vs. Class III 0% [n=0]; p=0.763) was limited by an insufficient sample size relative to a low event rate but did not differ between patient cohorts. Conclusions: Mini-AVR is safe and feasible to perform for obese patients regardless of their obesity class. Patients with obesity should be afforded the option of minimally invasive aortic valve surgery regardless of their obesity class.
Background and aim: Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death around the world. Coronary artery bypass grafting offers efficient surgical revascularization for ischemic disease. Both on- or off-pump coronary artery bypass methods provide promising results to octogenarians, once complete vascularization is achieved. However, off-pump bypass requires a certain level of experience to achieve sufficient results. We have applied an off-pump coronary artery bypass-first strategy to all generations since 2008. This study investigated early and long-term results of surgical revascularization for octogenarians by a team with an off-pump-first strategy. Methods: All cases of isolated coronary artery bypass grafting performed since 2008 were identified and divided into a young group (age <80 years) and an old group (age >=80 years). Peri-operative results were investigated retrospectively in both groups and long-term results for the old group were assessed. Results: Among the 707 patients, 97% underwent off-pump bypass, and 94 cases were classified to the old group. Distal anastomoses and ventilator time were identical between groups (young vs. old: 3.3 vs. 3.2; 3.7 h vs. 3.7 h). In-hospital death rates were 0.5% and 0% in the young and old groups, respectively. With a mean follow-up of 1318 days, actual 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates for octogenarians were 92.1%, 81.2% and 68.3%, respectively. Nearly half of the patients reached their nineties, which was close to the life expectancy of the national general octogenarian. Conclusions: An experienced team with an off-pump-first strategy could provide valid therapeutic options for octogenarians.
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pericardial adhesions have been associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and surgical difficulty. Barriers exist to limit adhesion formation, yet little is known about their use in cardiac surgery. The study presented here provides the first major systematic review of adhesion barriers in cardiac surgery. METHODS: Scopus and PubMed were assessed on November 20, 2020. Inclusion criteria were clinical studies on human subjects, and exclusion criteria were studies not published in English and case reports. Risk of bias was evaluated with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Barrier safety and efficacy data were assessed with Excel and GraphPad Prism 5. RESULTS: 25 studies were identified with a total of 13 barriers and 2,928 patients. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was the most frequently evaluated barrier (13 studies, 67% of patients) with an infection rate of 1.14%, bleeding event rate of 0.75%, mortality rate of 1.22%, adhesion formation rate of 37.31%, and standardized tenacity score of 26.50. Several barriers had improved safety and efficacy. In particular, Cova CARD had an infection rate of 0.00%, a bleeding event rate of 0.00%, and a tenacity score of 15.00. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the data varied considerably in terms of study design and reporting bias. The amount of data was also limited for the non-PTFE studies. PTFE has historically been effective in preventing adhesions. More recent barriers may be superior, yet the current data is non-confirmatory. No ideal adhesion barrier currently exists, and future barriers must focus on the requirements unique to operating in and around the heart.
Ever since the adoption of the newest heart allocation system in the Fall of 2018, clinicians have grappled with the safest method of utilizing temporary mechanical circulatory support to get patients successfully to transplantation. In unique patients that do not have a durable left ventricular assist device as a therapeutic option and have not had a full work-up for transplantation consideration, the establishment of ambulatory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is an attractive solution.
ABSTRACT The involvement of Medical Technology (MedTech) corporations in the provision of surgical care remains a topic of debate. This relationship is especially relevant in cardiac and aortic surgery as the use of grafts, stents, prostheses, and other devices is an integral component of most procedures. Many argue that the involvement of device representatives in cardiac surgical cases is valuable – they are often experts on their product and are able to contribute their expertise in challenging cases. Yet, the potential for MedTech corporations to influence surgeons’ clinical decision-making introduces a conflict-of-interest and calls into question what the ‘best practice’ for sales reps should be. The influence of MedTech corporations over policymaking bodies in the US, UK, and Europe also represents a major issue for transparency and is equally deserving of evaluation.
Surgical left ventricle restoration (SVR) was firstly by Cooley in 1958 with the “linear suture technique”, and three decades later, Dor used a circular patch to reconstruct the left ventricle excluding the scarred parts of the septum and ventricular wall. It gained popularity and eventually almost abandoned after the contrasting literature evidences. Hassanabad et al. presented a comprehensive review of current literature on surgical ventricle restoration (SVR) techniques and clinical outcomes, trying to understand if SVR has still a substantial role in the modern medicine.
Since the introduction of the saphenous vein graft (SVG) for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 1962, the SVG has remained the most commonly used conduit to the non-LAD territories for more than half a century. However, several issues surrounding the use of SVGs, including higher graft occlusion rates and wound complications from the harvesting process, have been identified in clinical practice. As such, significant interest has been dedicated towards developing harvesting techniques that minimize the risk of these acute and late complications. In this issue of the Journal of Cardiac Surgery, Yokoyama and colleagues compared the impact of open vein harvesting (OVH), endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) and no-touch vein harvesting (NT) on all-cause mortality, revascularization and graft failure, using a network meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials and propensity-score matched studies. The results showed that the risk of graft failure was approximately halved amongst patients receiving NT compared with EVH and OVH; importantly, though, NT was not associated with lower all-cause mortality or revascularization risk. To further examine whether the use of NT grafts endow patients with better long-term clinical outcomes, such as mortality, myocardial infarction, and revascularization rates, a large-scaled randomized controlled trial or a patient-level combined meta-analysis is required.
The Impella 5.5 with SmartAssist (Abiomed; Danvers, MA) is a life-saving treatment option in acute heart failure which utilizes a continuous heparin purge solution to prevent thrombosis. In patients with contraindications to heparin, alternative anticoagulation strategies are required. We describe the stepwise management of anticoagulation in a coagulopathic patient with persistent cardiogenic shock following a coronary artery bypass procedure who underwent Impella 5.5 placement. A direct thrombin inhibitor-based purge solution was utilized while evaluating for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Use of a novel bicarbonate-based purge solution (BBPS) was successfully used due to severe coagulopathy. There were no episodes of pump thrombosis or episodes of severe bleeding on the BBPS and systemic effects of alkalosis and hypernatremia were minimal.
Given the increased need for mechanical circulatory support and subsequent development of right ventricular assist devices (RVAD), appropriate imaging needs to be described to facilitate care in patients with cardiogenic shock and heart failure. We present three cases in which the upper esophageal aortic arch short axis (UE AA SAX) view on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was utilized to effectively image RVADs: to confirm normal positioning, to detect and guide repositioning, and to visualize malfunction. These cases support the importance of the UE AA SAX TEE view in RVAD outflow imaging and, when obtainable, should be included in routine RVAD assessment.
Since the first in-human implantation, trans-catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has shown an exciting development in both technical and technological terms, becoming the standard of care for many patients, even not only inoperable ones. Although trans-femoral (TF) access has the scepter of first-line route for TAVR, in some cases, this access is not feasible, so several alternative routes were introduces over time. The network meta-analysis by Hameed et al has the great merit to provide a comprehensive picture. Hence, through either direct and indirect comparison, the authors confirmed as TF is the gold standard as access, followed by trans-carotid and trans-subclavian. Conversely, trans-thoracic (trans apical and trans-aortic) routes are the least safe and should be reserved only to sporadic cases.
Hospital administrations and providers are more than ever in need for new technologies and innovative methods with clinical benefit at lower costs. Surgeons and clinicians depend on conventional risk stratification scores developed to allow physicians to establish the risk of perioperative mortality. However, the current practiced models of preventive cardiology largely depend on patient motivation and awareness to be able to apply such risk scores appropriately. It was not until the appearance of miniaturized pocket-sized, user-friendly digital technologies that the awareness started to grow, highlighting the importance of role of technology and artificial intelligence (AI) in modern day medicine.
Enlargement of left ventricular outflow tract using an autologous pericardial patch for the anterior mitral valve leaflet and septal myectomy through trans-mitral approach for the hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy Zhang et al (1) describe their experience in septal myectomy for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Of 247 consecutive cases with HOCM treated during 2016-2019 with a variety of techniques, this report is on 16 patients who underwent trans-mitral septal myectomy and enlargement of left ventricular outflow with an autologous pericardial patch in transverse configuration. The technique reportedly decreased the gradient from average 90+ to 10+ mm Hg and resolved systolic anterior leaflet motion in all with only mild residual mitral regurgitation. There were no deaths or any other major complications in this group. It is a small group of patients with excellent result but no definitive conclusion can be drawn regarding validity of the technique from this study. The controversy remains regarding the approach, trans-aortic vs. trans-mitral and whether leaflets should be left alone, plicated or lengthened as well as whether mitral valve should be repaired or replaced in addition to septal myectomy. One certainty remains, extended myectomy done either way, is the foundation of the surgical treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.