Background It is controversial whether pulmonary function testing should be performed routinely in cardiac surgery patients. The aim of our study was to focus on patients who have congestive heart failure, caused by left ventricular dysfunction or left-sided heart valve disease, and study the prognostic value of performing preoperative pulmonary function testing on their postoperative outcomes Methods: This is a retrospective propensity score matched study that included 366 patients with congestive heart failure who underwent cardiac surgery and had preoperative pulmonary function test. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1; who had a normal or mild reduction in pulmonary function tests and group 2; who had moderate to severe reduction in pulmonary function tests. The postoperative outcomes, including pulmonary complications, were compared between the two groups. Results Pulmonary function tests were normal or mildly reduced in 190 patients (group 1) and moderately to severely reduced in 176 patients (group 2). Propensity matching identified 111 matched pairs in each group with balanced preoperative and operative characteristics. Compared to group 1, Group 2 had longer duration of mechanical ventilation [12 (7.5- 16) vs. 9 (6.5- 13) hours, p<0.001], higher postoperative Creatinine [111 (90- 142) vs. 105 (81- 128) µmol/dl, p=0.02] and higher hospital mortality (6.31% vs 0%, p=0.02). Conclusion In congestive heart failure patients undergoing cardiac surgery, moderate to severe reduction of pulmonary function test was associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation and higher hospital mortality.
Background: Patients who undergo cardiac surgery are at increased risk of stroke, postoperative cognitive decline, and delirium. These neurocognitive complications have led to increased costs, intensive care unit stays, morbidity, and mortality. As a result, there is a significant push to mitigate any neurological complications in cardiac surgery patients. Near-infrared spectroscopy to measure regional cerebral oxygen saturations has gained consideration due to its non-invasive, user-friendly, and relatively inexpensive nature. Aim of Study: To provide a comprehensive summary of cerebral oximetry in cardiac surgery. The review interrogates multiple systematic reviews assessing different outcomes in cardiac surgery to assess if cerebral oximetry is effective. Further, the review analyzes all available interventions for an acute desaturation to determine the efficacy of individual interventions. Methods: A narrative review of randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and systematic reviews with metanalyses were performed through August 2021. Results: There is significant heterogeneity amongst studies regarding the definition of a clinically significant cerebral desaturation. In addition, the assessment of neurocognitive outcomes has large variability, making metanalysis challenging. To date, cerebral oximetry use during cardiac surgery has not been associated with improvements in neurocognitive outcomes, morbidity, or mortality. The evidence to support particular interventions for an acute desaturation is equivocal. Conclusions: Future research is needed to quantify a clinically significant cerebral desaturation and to determine which interventions for an acute desaturation effectively improve clinical outcomes.
Introduction: Opinion is divided about optimal early timing of the Fontan Operation (FO). While some studies have suggested 3 years-of-age, others have shown good outcomes below 2 years-of -age. We analyzed the impact of age ≤2-years as compared age >2-years on short-term outcome of the FO using a large national database. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the Kids Inpatient Database (2009-16) for the FO was done. The groups were divided into those who underwent FO at age ≤2-years (EF) as compared to age >2-years (LF). The data was abstracted for demographics, clinical characteristics, and operative outcomes. Standard statistical tests were used. Results: 3381 patients underwent FO during this period of which 1482 (44%) were EF. The mean ages of the EF and LF were 1.6 and 4.3, respectively (p< 0.001). LF were more likely to be non-White, female, and have Heterotaxy syndrome. HLHS was more common in EF. There was no difference in the discharge mortality, length of stay, disposition (majority went home), and mean total charges incurred. The overall discharge mortality was low at 0.7% (24/3381). In multivariate analysis: cardiac arrest, acute kidney injury, mechanical ventilation >96 hours, endocardial cushion defect and non-White ethnicity were predictors of a mortality and not age. Conclusion: Contemporary outcomes for FO are excellent with equivalent short-term outcomes in both the age groups. Occurrence of postoperative complications, non-white ethnicity and endocardial cushion defect diagnosis were predictive of a negative outcome.
Background The European CE Mark approval study and the MOMENTUM 3 trial demonstrated safety and a reduction in hemocompatibility-related adverse events with use of HeartMate 3 (HM3) device. This single center study investigated the real-world experience in HM3 patients since FDA approval. Methods This retrospective, observational study included patients implanted with the HM3 LVAD as a primary implant between October 2017-March 2020. Patients were divided into trial group and postapproval group. Primary endpoint was survival at 6 months. Secondary endpoints were adverse events including pump thrombosis (requiring pump exchange), stroke, renal failure, acute limb ischemia, re-exploratory for bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding, right ventricular failure, and driveline infection. Results A total of 189 patients were implanted with HM3 device during the study period. 174 patients met the inclusion criteria: 82 patients in the trial group and 92 patients in the postapproval group. The postapproval group had younger patients, higher pre-operative mean international normalized ratio, and greater numbers of patients with bridge to transplant (BTT) indications, IINTERMACS profile 1, and use of mechanical assist devices (other than IABP) than the trial group. Other characteristics between the two groups were comparable. Overall survival at 6 months in the postapproval group was 93.3% vs. 93.8% ( p=0.88). The postapproval group demonstrated a statistically significant lower incidence of re-explorative surgery for bleeding (10.9% vs 46.3, p=0.01) than the trial group. Conclusion In this single-center study, the real-world 6-month survival in the postapproval group was comparable to the trial results. Further studies are needed to monitor long-term outcomes.
Background The ideal aortic valve replacement strategy in young- and middle-aged adults remains up for debate. Clinical practice guidelines recommend mechanical prostheses for most patients less than 50 years of age undergoing aortic valve replacement. However, risks of major hemorrhage and thromboembolism associated with long-term anticoagulation may make the pulmonary autograft technique, or Ross procedure, a preferred approach in select patients. Methods Data were retrospectively collected for patients 18 to 50 years of age who underwent either the Ross procedure or mechanical aortic valve replacement (mAVR) between January 2000 and December 2016 at a single institution. Propensity score matching was performed and yielded 32 well-matched pairs from a total of 216 eligible patients. Results Demographic and preoperative characteristics were similar between the two groups. Median follow-up was 7.3 and 6.9 years for Ross and mAVR, respectively. There were no early mortalities in either group and no statistically significant differences were observed with respect to perioperative outcomes or complications. Major hemorrhage and stroke events were significantly more frequent in the mAVR population ( p < 0.01). Overall survival ( p = 0.93), freedom from reintervention and valve dysfunction free survival ( p = 0.91) were equivalent. Conclusions In this mid-term propensity score-matched analysis, the Ross procedure offers similar perioperative outcomes, freedom from reintervention or valve dysfunction as well as overall survival compared to traditional mAVR but without the morbidity associated with long-term anticoagulation. At specialized centers with sufficient expertise, the Ross procedure should be strongly considered in select patients requiring aortic valve replacement.
Background: Persistence or recurrence of stenosis is a complication of initial coarctation repair. This study aims to report short-term outcomes of surgical management of recurrent coarctation and initial repair analysis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our experience with 51 patients undergoing recoarctation surgical repair between 2008 and 2019 using antegrade cerebral perfusion technique. Results: Surgical correction included prosthetic patch aortoplasty in 23 (45%), resection with wide end-to-end anastomosis in 15 (29%) and a tube interposition graft in 13 (25%) patients. Median age at initial correction and reintervention were 12 month and 9 years. Median interval from primary repair to reintervention was 60 months. Initial repair analysis revealed 33% of patients had initial correction in the neonatal period, 72,5% of patients were done via a left thoracotomy approach and 63% of patients had end-to-end anastomosis at initial surgery. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that surgical repair of recurrent coarctation of the aorta using antegrade cerebral perfusion technique can be performed safely and with excellent results.
Genetic syndromes such as Brugada syndrome can lead to lethal ventricular arrhythmias. Cardiac Sympathetic Denervation has been shown to be effective in ameliorating refractory ventricular arrhythmias. We present a 33-year-old black female with a past medical history of Brugada syndrome with an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD), who presented with refractory ventricular tachycardia/atrial fibrillation leading to cardiogenic shock, requiring Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The patient subsequently underwent bilateral stellate ganglion sympathetic denervation in the setting of refractory ventricular arrhythmias. We present this case report to showcase that thoracoscopic bilateral cardiac sympathetic denervation can be an effective definitive treatment option for ventricular arrhythmias refractory to medical management.
Objective: To investigate the effect of aortic esophageal fistula treatment after thoracic aortic endovascular repair (TEVAR) with artificial vessel bypass. Methods: The clinical data of 6 consecutive patients who received surgical treatment at Shanghai Deda Hospital from September 2019 to June 2021 due to aortic esophageal fistula after TEVAR were retrospectively analyzed. There were 6 males, aged (47.7±8.2) years old (range: 35-56 years old). All patients had recurrent fever, and 4 patients had positive blood cultures. According to the specific conditions of the patients, all patients underwent artificial blood vessel bypass and jejunostomy under general anesthesia without extracorporeal circulation. One case underwent artificially infected vascular segment resection and esophageal repair at the same time. 5 cases underwent artificial infection vascular resection, 4 of them underwent esophageal repair, and 1 case had a large intraoperative fistula and local resection of the esophagus. Sensitive antibacterial drugs were continued after the operation for 6 to 8 weeks. Results: There were 2 deaths in hospital, 1 case of large cerebral infarction early postoperatively, and 1 case of septic shock. The remaining 4 patients recovered well after the operation and were discharged. The follow-up period was 2 to 23 months. During the follow-up period, the remaining patients had no recurrence of infection and esophageal fistula. Conclusion ：In patients with aortic esophageal fistula after TEVAR, the establishment of artificial vascular bypass, the resection of the infected vascular segment, contemporaneous or staged esophageal repair, regular anti-infective treatment can obtain a good prognosis.
Paravalvular leak (PVL) is uncommon but can lead to severe complications after surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Clinical complications such as heart failure, haemolysis and infective endocarditis can be catastrophic results if not treated in promptly. It is, therefore, vital that PVLs are diagnosed early using various imaging modalities. Different approaches have been studies in managing PVL’s; of late, there is an increased interest in the use of minimally invasive procedures such as the transcatheter aortic valve closure procedure due to the decreased occurrence of further operations. This review discusses the classification of PVLs, diagnostic approaches and the available management options.
Introduction: In this study, we aimed to compare the early postoperative period results of type 2 diabetes patients taking oral antidiabetics or insulin medications, with microalbuminuria and normal creatinine levels after coronary artery bypass. Materials and methods: Eighty patients with type 2 diabetes and taking oral antidiabetics or receiving insulin medication all with normal creatinine levels with microalbuminuria were included in this study. Preoperative creatinine values of the patients, albumin levels in spot urine, creatinine levels on the postoperative 3rd day, duration of ventilation, amount of drainage, length of stay in the intensive care unit, length of stay in the hospital, mediastinitis and mortality rates were recorded. Results: A statistically significant increase in creatinine was found in both taking oral antidiabetics type 2 diabetes and insulin medication patient groups with microalbuminuria. When the two groups were compared with each other, increase in creatinine levels of the patients using insulin was higher than the patients taking oral antidiabetics, and was statistically significant. Conclusion: According to the result of our study it can be suggested that postoperative creatinine elevation is observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with microalbuminuria and with normal creatinine levels, either having insulin medication or not. The elevation is higher in patients having insulin medication while other results are similar, except for impaired renal function. Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin, microalbuminuria, coronary artery bypass.
Objective: To describe experience with using intraoperative Transesophageal Echocardiography to reliably predict the size of the rapid deployment prosthetic valve by measuring the native aortic annulus Methods: Retrospective review of single institution series of patients undergoing Aortic Valve Replacement with Rapid Deployement Bioprosthetic Valves. Included were patients that had their native aortic valve replaced either isolated or as part of any additional procedure. Aortic annulus was measured prior to initiation of the operation using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Correlation analysis was conducted between Echocardiographic annular measurements and actual implanted valve sizes. Results: Twenty five patients underwent rapid deployment valve implantation in the aortic position. Of these, 36% of patients had the same size valve as the measured aortic annulus, 48% of patients had a valve implanted that was 1 mm different, and 16% of patients had 2 mm difference. The mean annular size based was 22.4 mm (range: 21-28 mm). The mean valve size implanted was 23.3 mm (range: 21-27 mm). There was no statistically significant difference between the mean annular measurement and the valve size selected (0.9 mm , p = 0.8). Conclusion: TEE can further enhance valve sizing and guidance through a proper and safe deployment. Although evident in our experience, larger scale studies are needed to further elucidate conclusions on the importance of avoiding under-sizing valves.
Objective: To compare outcomes of hemiarch versus total arch repair during extended ascending aortic replacement. Methods: Between 2004 and 2017, 261 patients underwent hemiarch (n=149, 57%) or total arch repair (aortic debranching or Carrell patch technique, n=112, 43%) in the setting of extended replacement of the ascending aorta. Median follow-up was 17.2 (IQR 4.2–39.1) months. Multivariable models considering preoperative and intraoperative factors associated with mortality and aortic reintervention were constructed. Results: Survival was 89.0, 81.3, and 73.5% vs. 76.4, 69.5, and 61.7% at 1, 3, and 5 years in the hemiarch versus total arch groups, respectively (log-rank p=0.010). After adjustment for preoperative and intraoperative factors, the presence of a total arch repair (adjusted HR 2.53, 95% CI 1.39 – 4.62, p=0.003), and increasing age (adjusted HR per 10 years of age, 1.76, 95% CI 1.37 – 2.28, p<0.001) were associated with increased mortality. The cumulative incidence of aortic reintervention with death as a competing outcome was 2.6, 2.6, and 4.4% and 5.0, 10.3, and 11.9% in the hemiarch and total arch groups, respectively. After adjustment, the presence of a total arch repair was significantly associated with need for aortic reintervention (SHR 3.21, 95% CI 1.01 – 10.2, p=0.047). Conclusions: Overall survival after aortic arch repair in the setting of extended ascending aortic replacement is excellent, however, total arch repair and increasing age are associated with higher mortality and reintervention rates. A conservative approach to aortic arch repair can be prudent, especially in those of advanced age.
Objective: In this study, it was aimed to compare various parameters during surgery and postoperative cognitive functions in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery using different levels of perioperative oxygen. Methods: One hundred patients scheduled for elective CABG surgery were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to arterial oxygen levels during surgery. In the normoxia group (NG) (n = 50), PaO2 was between ≥100mmHg and <180mmHg with at least 40% FiO2 mechanical ventilation (MV), and in the hyperoxia group (HG) (n = 50), PaO2 was ≥180 mmHg with 100% FiO2 MV. Hemodynamic parameters, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) measured from bilateral sensors, and blood gas values were recorded at the planned measurement times. Mini-mental state examination test (MMSE) was applied to the patients before and at the 12th, 24th hours; on the 1st, 3rd, 6th months after surgery. Results: Extubation time was found to be shorter in NG (p <0.05). Between the groups, rSO2 and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were found to be significantly lower in HG at the time of T4 measurement (p = 0.042, p = 0.038, respectively). MMSE values of the groups at the 1st, 3rd and 6th months were found to be significantly higher in NG (respectively p = 0.017, p = 0.014, p = 0.002). Conclusion: Hyperoxemia application during CABG may be associated with worse postoperative late-term cognitive functions. Keywords: cardiopulmonary bypass; hyperoxia; postoperative complications; cognitive function; spectroscopy, near-infrared.
BACKGROUND/AIM To evaluate outcomes of concurrent Cox-Maze procedures in elderly patients undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery. MEHODS We retrospectively identified patients aged over 70 years with Atrial Fibrillation (AF) from 2011 to 2017 who had two or more other cardiac procedures. They were subdivided into two groups: 1. Cox-Maze IV AF ablation 2. No-Surgical AF treatment. Patients requiring redo procedures or those who had isolated PVI or LAAO were excluded. Heart rhythm assessed from Holter reports or 12-lead ECG. Follow-up data collected through telephone consultations and medical records. RESULTS There were 239 patients. Median follow up was 61 months. 70 patients had Cox-Maze IV procedures (29.3%). Demographic, intra- and post-operative outcomes were similar between groups although duration of pre-operative AF was shorter in Cox-Maze group (p=0.001). One (1.4%) patient in Cox maze group with 30-day mortality compared to 14 (8.2%) the control group (p=0.05). Sinus rhythm at annual and latest follow-up was 84.9% and 80.0% respectively in Maze group - significantly better than No-Surgical AF treatment groups (P<0.001). 160 patients (66.9%) were alive at long-term follow-up with better survival curves in Cox Maze group compared to No-Surgical treatment group (p=0.02). There was significantly higher proportion of patients in NYHA 1 status in Cox-Maze group (p=0.009). No differences observed in freedom from stroke (p=0.80) or permanent pacemaker (p=0.33). CONCLUSIONS. Surgical ablation is beneficial in elderly patients undergoing high-risk surgery - promoting excellent long-term freedom from AF and symptomatic/prognostic benefits. Therefore, surgical risk need not be reason to deny benefits of concomitant AF-ablation.
Introduction: Nowadays micro-invasive procedures (off-pump, beating heart) for mitral valve repair (MVRe) are abruptly expanding with the potential to be adopted as a valuable alternative to surgery. In the present manuscript, the Authors review the available technologies intended to treat mitral regurgitation (MR) through transapical approach, including annuloplasty and chordal repair options. Annuloplasty: To date, Valcare Amend is the only transapical mitral valve (MV) ring to have been implanted in patients. The device allows for stabilization of the annulus through a complete semirigid D-shaped ring. The first-in-human successful procedure was performed in 2016 by our Group and subsequent clinical experience included a total of 14 implanted patients. Currently the technology is under clinical trial evaluation to validate the efficacy and safety profile of the device. Chordal Repair: Beating heart chordal implantation via trans-apical approach is a current feasible, safe and reproducible option. Neochord DS1000 is the most widely used technology in the field, with a solid procedural experience and good results in well-selected patients. Its clinical use has been validated in Europe since 2012, while it is still under clinical investigation in the United States. Harpoon TDS-5 system is a novel technology, recently CE mark approved for clinical use. Conclusions: Transapical micro-invasive technologies are current viable therapies to treat MR in selected patients. Embracing transcatheter MVRe therapies should guide the cardiac surgeon through the new revolution of micro-invasive MV tailored repair.
【Abstract】 Background:Cardiac pacemakers are still an effective method for the treatment of atrioventricular block diseases(AVB). Ventricular pacing results in adverse clinical outcome. For patients with atrioventricular conduction system disease, minimization ventricular pacing not be used to reduce the proportion of ventricular pacing and improve cardiac function. Recent studies have shown that His bundle pacing(HBP) can be an effective treatment for patients with atrioventricular block . The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of His bundle in patients with AVB. Methods:We searched the studies from Pubmed,Embase and Cochrane Library database to evaluate the application of HBP in patients with AVB. From these studies, we extrated and summarized the related data such as implantation success rate, QRS width, pacing threshold at baseline and follow-up, assessment left ventricular function, complications. Results:This Meta- analysis included eight studies, including 430 patients. The success rate of implantation varied from 65% to 93%. The main indications of HBP were patients with AVB, including patients with atrioventricular node block and intranodal block. Left ventricular function(left ventricular ejection fraction) was not significantly improved during follow-up. The duration of QRS after HBP implantation was more narrow (113±18ms). Compared with the baseline level, the threshold of HBP was not significantly increased during follow-up. During an average of 12 months of follow-up, pacemaker-related complications occurred in 16 patients. Conclusion:Permanent HBP has shown promising results for patients with AVB in small observational studies. Randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy of HBP in these patients.
Background: This study investigated the impact of weight change in waitlisted candidates on posttransplant outcomes following orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). Methods: The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried to identify adult patients undergoing isolated, primary OHT from 1/1/2010 to 3/20/2020. Patients were stratified into 3 cohorts based on percent weight change from listing to OHT. The primary outcome was one-year survival, and multivariable modeling was used for risk-adjustment. A secondary analysis compared outcomes of recipients waitlisted ≥90 days. Results: A total of 22,360 patients were included, 18,826 (84.2%) with stable weight, 1,672 (7.5%) with ≥5% weight loss, and 1,862 (8.3%) with ≥5% weight gain. Median age was similar across cohorts. Waitlist time was longest in patients with weight gain and shortest in those with stable weight (417 vs 74 days, P<0.001). The weight loss cohort had higher rates of dialysis dependency, pacemaker, and drug-treated acute rejection at one year (all P<0.05). Ninety-day and one-year posttransplant survival was lowest in the weight loss cohort. Multivariable modeling identified both ≥5% weight loss (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.07-1.48) and decreasing weight (per 1%, HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03) as risk-adjusted predictors of one-year mortality. In sub-analysis of recipients waitlisted ≥90 days, ≥5% weight loss and decreasing weight remained significant independent predictors for mortality. Conclusion: Waitlisted OHT candidates with ≥5% weight loss comprised a small, but higher-risk population with increased rates of postoperative complications and decreased survival. Efforts focused on nutritional optimization and preventing weight loss while awaiting OHT appear warranted.