Ventricular septal defects are the most common congenital heart defects.
They account for approximately 20% of all forms of congenital heart
disease as an isolated lesion. Perimembranous Ventricular septal defects
are the most common form (70%), followed by muscular
(15–20%).Muscular VSDs are a challenging problem in neonates and
infants when they present with significant congestive heart failure from
interventricular shunting. However, with careful adjustments to
technique, most of these can be closed.