The ratification of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by all member countries of the United Nations demonstrates the determination of the international community in moving towards a sustainable future. To enable and encourage accountability, independent and transparent measurements of national sustainability efforts are essential. Among all sectors, agriculture is fundamental to all three pillars of sustainability, namely environment, society, and economy. However, the definition of a sustainable agriculture and the feasibility of measuring it remain elusive, in part because it encompasses both biophysical and socio-economic components that are still poorly integrated. Therefore, we have been developing a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix (SAM) on a national scale in order to measure country-level performance in agriculture. First proposed by Swaminathan for agricultural research and policy in 1990s, SAM is a collection of indicators measuring sustainable agriculture from environmental, social, and economic dimensions (Table 1). Specifically, from an Environment perspective, sustainable agriculture reduces unsustainable use of water resources for agricultural production, further loss of biodiversity from converting native habits to agriculture, production of forms of pollution that affect local and regional water and air quality, and emissions of greenhouse gases, and it maintains or improves soil health and fertility. From an Economic perspective, sustainable agriculture improves the economic viability of the agricultural sector by enhancing agricultural productivity and profitability, advancing agricultural innovation capacity, providing farmers access to market and credits, reducing farmers’ risks. From a Social perspective, sustainable agriculture improves farmers’ wellbeing, respects farmers’ rights, promotes equitable opportunities, and benefits the whole society with enhanced system resilience and improved health and nutrition. Translating the illustrative concepts into measurable indicators will not only provide an independent and transparent measurement of national performance in the sustainability of agriculture production, which is at the center of Water-Energy-Food nexus, but also provide timely information to help guide evolving national policies regarding agriculture, trade, environment, and national security.